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Full text of "Natural resources study for Alachua County, Florida"

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1977/1 
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North Central Florida Regor^ol Plannrg Counoi 



COUNCIL MEMBERSHIP 
1977 

OFFICERS 

Jonathan F. Wershow, Chairman 

Paul Rlherd, Vice Chairman 

Jerry Scarborough, Secretary-Treasurer 



ALACHUA COUNTY 

•Thomas Coward Wilson Robinson 

-Jack Durrance Edwin B. Turlington 

Perry McGriff, Jr. "Jonathan F. Wershow 

BRADFORD COUNTY 
•E. W. Hodges -Robert L. Scott 

COLUMBIA COUNTY 
•James Montgormery Wayne Nettles 

HAMILTON COUNTY 
•L. A. Edenfield 

LAFAYETTE COUNTY 
'•Pai.l Trawick 

MADISON COUNTY 
Albert Kelley Howard McDaniel 

SUWANNEE COUNTY 
■Jerry Scarborough 

TAYLOR COUNTY 
•Shirley Curry -''Samuel Osteen 

UNION COUNTY 
■Paul Riherd 



CITY OF ALACHUA 
"Glenn DuBois 

CITY OF GAINESVILLE 

Clayton C. Curtis Gary Junior 
B. Harold Farmer Gary McClain 

"Aaron Green '''Bobbie Lisle 

William Howard ^'Joseph Little 

CITY OF HIGH SPRINGS 

Cleve Blanton 

CITY OF LAKE CITY 

Elzlna Jenkins "Paul Roy 

CITY OF LIVE OAK 
Rev. Ellis Fa nn -•'S. T. McDowell 

CITY OF MADISON 
"Frank Merritt 

CITY OF MICANOPY 
Wi I 1 iam Proctor 

CITY OF PERRY 

Andy Bowdoin 

CITY OF STARKE 
•'•'Harold Epps 



■Board of D i rectors 



RESOLUTI ON 



WHEREAS, the North Central Florida Regional Planning Council is preparing 
a Regional Comprehensive Plan, the basic goal of which is to "improve our 
qua 1 i ty of 1 Iving ;" and 

WHEREAS, achievement of this goal is dependent upon sound comprehensive 
planning addressing the problems and opportunities for future growth and 
prosperity of the Region; and 

WHEREAS, it is the policy of the Council to support the optimal use of 
the Region's natural resources, prevent their further degradation and 
rectify past damage; and 

WHEREAS, it is an objective of the Council to plan for and promote the 
wiseuseof both renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and, further 
to promote responsible development within the tolerances of natural 
systems; and 

WHEREAS, the adoption of the Natural Resources study will assist in the 
achievement of the goals, policies and objectives of the Council; 

NOW, THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED, the Council adopts the Natural Resources 
study to provide leadership and a workable strategy for the efficient 
management of the Region's natural resources. 



Jonathan F. Wershow, Chairman 
February 23, 1978 



Jerry Scarborough, Secretary-Treasurer 
February 23, 1978 



cIic.t!t?3 i^ Kif^stBt 



^^partmex^ of Geogiaphj 



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NATURAL RESOURCES 



The preparation of this report was financed in 
part through a comprehensive planning grant from 
the Department of Housing and Urban Development. 



July, 1977 



North Central Florida Regional Planning Counci 

2002 Northwest 13th Street, - Suite 202 

Gainesville, Florida 32601 
iSOk) 376-33^^ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/naturalresourcesOOnort_0 



BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA 1- R^-porc No. 

SHEET NCFRPC 77-OOi+ 


2. 


S.M^ecipient's .Accession No. 


4. ! itic jr.j Subtitle 

Natural Resources 


'5. Report Date 

July, 1977 


6. 


7. .\uthori s 1 

See ?9 Below 


8. Pertormmg Organization Rept. 

■'^'°- NCFRPC 77-OOA 


9. Pcrtornunt; Organization Name and Address 

North Central Florida Regional Planning Council 
2002 N.W. 13th Street, Suite 202 
Gainesville, PL 32601 


10. PtLOJect Task/Vi'ork Unit No. 


11. Contract Grant Xo. 

CPA-FL-04-00-1006 


12. Sponsoring Organization Name and .Address 

Department of Housing and Urban Development 
661 Riverside Avenue 
Jacksonville, Fl 32204 


13. Type ot Report Sc Period 
Covered 

Final 


14. 


IS. Supplementary Xotes 


16. Abs-racts 

This Study identifies and describes the major natural resources of the North Central 
Florida Region, defining their areal extent as well as the relative values a.nd limi- 
tations of their components. The report utilizes a series of maps depicting the 
Dhys iograph i c characteristics of each resource. As well as a resource inventory, 
a method is presented to determine the relative feasibility of land development 
within the Region. Data and analytical techniques are shared with the Land Use 
Study. Goals, objectives and policies are recommended. 


17. Key '.\ords and Document Analysis. 17a. Descriptors 

Vegetation, Natural Resources, Wildlife, Water, Ecology, Forests, Physiography, 
Rocks and Minerals, Soils, Climate, Environmental Impact Evaluation. 

17b. IJentit'iers Open-Ended Terms 
17c. JJSATI Field/Group 


13. .■.■.a:.ao:.:tv >tatement^Q^^^^ Central Florida Regional 

Planning Council, 2002 N.W. 13th Street, Suite 202 


19. -e.-.:;:v Class Thi, 


21. --J. ;: rac... 

165 


Ga inesvi lie, FL 32601 




20. Secc:i:v class 7-;, 
IXr;. \<S!FIFD 


22. ':■■:.; 



THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED 

i I I 



-SC0"-*v-3.Z 4j»;2--" 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Chapter Page 

Table of Contents v 

List of Tables xi 

List of Maps ix 

Summary and Conclusions 1 

Introduction 3 

Physiography 7 

Introduction 7 

Regional Overview 8 

Influence of Topography 12 

CI imate 17 

Introduction 17 

General Regional Climate 17 

Temperature 1° 

Precipitation 20 

Other Climate Factors 20 

Influence of Climate 21 

Geology 23 

Geological Overview 23 

Genera] Geology 23 

Geologic Map Preparation 29 

'•/ater Resources 33 

Introduction 33 

Surface Water Resources 33 

General 33 

Drainage Basins 3^ 

Lakes 38 

Groundwater Resources 39 

Springs ^^ 

Water Quality Management kS 

Water Quality Overview l^^ 

.Water Quality Factors 49 



TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued 



Chapter 



Page 



Point Sources 55 

Non-Point Sources 58 

Flood Plains 60 

Wetlands 62 

Water Resource Projects 69 

Rock and Mineral Resources 71 

Introduction 71 

Clay Deposits 72 

Limestone/Dolomite 73 

Phosphate Resources 75 

Hardrock Phosphate Deposits 76 

Land Pebble Phosphate Deposits 77 

Gypsum 78 

Sand 79 

Oil and Gas Resources 79 

General Considerations 80 

Soils 85 

Introduction 85 

Soils and Planning 85 

Soil Maps 08 

Vegetation 93 

Introduction 93 

Agriculture 93 

General 93 

Agriculture in North Central Florida 9^ 

Problems and Values of Agricultural Land 96 

Agriculture and Soils 99 

Forestry 105 

General 105 

Forestry in North Central Florida 105 

Measures of Forest Quality 109 



V 1 



TABLE OF CONTENTS - Cont inued 

Chapter Page 

Forest Types Ill 

Forest Production II3 

Forest Management 1 1 it 

Map Preparation II5 

Wildlife Resources II9 

Introduction 1)9 

Wildlife Habitat 120 

Sandhill Communities 120 

Mixed Hardwood and Pine Communities 120 

Hammocks 121 

Pine Flatwoods 121 

Swamp Forests 122 

Wet Prairie 122 

Salt Marshes 123 

Submerged Lands 123 

Wildlife Management ]2k 

Determination of Habitat Suitability 126 

Land Use and Natural Systems I3I 

Introduction I3I 

Significant Natural Areas I3] 

Existing Land Use 132 

Comparison of Natural Systems I35 

Goals, Objectives, Policies 11+3 

Appendices I/45 

Bibl iography j^^ 



VI I 



LIST OF TABLES 

Table Page 

1. General Slope Use Zoning ]k 

2. Average Temperature ig 

3. Average Rainfall 19 

k. Freeze Data 19 

5. Geologic Time and Stratagraphic Relationships of 

Formations in North Central Florida 26 

6. Rivers and Tributaries in the Suwannee River Basin 37 

7. Lakes in Planning District III 39 

8. Lakes Exceeding 100 Acres in Planning District III kO 

9- First and Second Magnitude Springs of North Central Florida . . kS 

10. Freshwater Withdrawn and Consumed in North Central Florida. . . 50 

11. Stream Classification in Water Quality Limited Segments .... 52 

12. Summary of Point Source Discharges 56 

13. Summary Chart of Major Point Source Discharges 57 

14. Nature of Non-Point Sources by County 59 

15. V.'ater Resource Management Projects 70 

16. Land Treatment Needs of Strip Mined Areas in North Central 
Florida 82 

17. Status of Soil Surveys in North Central Florida 87 

18. Soil Associations In North Central Florida 89 

19. County Agricultural Summary (197^) 95 

20. Changes In Agriculture 1974-1969 97 

21. Agricultural Caoablllty Classification for Soils 100 

22. Agricultural Potential of Soil Associations 101 

23. Forest Land by County IO6 

24. Area of Forest Land by Ownership and County (1970) 107 

25- Forested Land by Type and Area 1 O8 

26. Forest Land by Stocking Class and County, 1970 110 

27. Forest Land by Site Class and County, 1970 112 

23. Wildlife and Fish Management Areas 126 

29. Hunting Potential by County 127 

30. Components of the General Wildlife Suitability Map 123 



IX 



LIST OF MAPS 

Title Page 

North Centra] Florida Planning Region District III xlii 

General Physiographic Map 9 

General Geologic Map 27 

General Geologic Suitability for Development 31 

Drainage Basins and Basin Segments 35 

General Recharge ^7 

General Basin Segment - V/ater Quality 53 

Areas Subject to 100 Year Flood 63 

Wetlands 67 

Rock and Mineral Resources 83 

Soil Potential for Community Development 91 

Soil Potential for Agriculture 103 

General Vegetation 117 

General Wildlife Suitability 129 

Significant Natural Areas 133 

Existing Land Use 137 

Composite Map of Natural Resources 1^1 



XI 



SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSIONS 



Based on the information presented in this report, it is apparent that 
all natural resource elements should be considered together because they 
consi-itute a system of interdependent processes. Each of these defined 
elements is affected by the others and in turn is affected by human ac- 
tivities. The cause and effect relationship of these systems is far 
more complex than any individual map suggests. Therefore, planners and 
governmental officials will undoubtedly need the continued assistance of 
specialists In a variety of fields to evaluate the advantages and dis- 
advantages of specific plans and proposals. 

However, the system of map comparisons utilized in this study appears to 
be one viable method of summarizing natural resources data despite the 
limitations imposed by utilizing subjective value judgements for map 
preparation. The continued collection of data and revision of these 
general maps constitutes a useful methodology for establishing general 
patterns of resource values and relationships. Through this method then, 
one tool is established by which the limits and distribution of future 
growth may be better evaluated and planned. This and similar documents 
such as the Land Use Plan may be utilized by decision-makers and planners 
to continually assess the trade-offs between growth and development 
versus quality of life in order to insure that future development is not 
only commensurate with environmental needs but also in the best long 
term interest of the citizens of the Region. A number of general con- 
clusions may be reached which generally reflect a need for degree of 
sophistication in natural resource considerations for local and regional 
planning efforts. 

Areas of relatively high sensitivity to development are vulnerable to 
abusive uses of surrounding land as well as direct developmental impact. 
As evidenced in part by Isolated sensitive "Islands" of valuable wildlife 
habitat, long term Impacts affected by seemingly very low density develop- 
ments may have, through time, substantial long term environmental 
repercussions. Therefore, potential indirect environmental impacts must 
be adequately addressed during development review and future land use 
plann Ing act i v I ti es . 

The high natural values of wetlands as described in this report are not 
usually respected during development considerations, nor Is their 
potential fully utilized in development practices. The need for further 
development policies by all local governments Is therefore suggested not 
only for wetlands but also for other poorly drained areas within the 



Region. Similarly, developments in and around areas of environmental 
concern, such as San Felasco Hammock, Paynes Prairie of Hixtown Swamp, 
need to be thoroughly evaluated In order to Insure that long term 
environmental deterioration does not occur. A consideration of the 
possible useful employment of wetlands and other valuable natural areas 
for human purposes would be a useful consideration In long range land 
use planning for Individual counties in the Region. 

Land use Implications of natural resources as suggested by this study 
are so varied and complex that this study cannot be considered the final 
end product of a natural resources survey. It constitutes a portion 
of the total work effort toward realizing and planning for the full and 
beneficial use of these resources. 

Undoubtedly new information on natural resources in the future will 
provide data which will alter, at least to some degree, the Implications 
of the maps presented herein. Such revision Is in the best interest 
of the Region and should be encouraged as new Information is available, 
in essence, however. It Is important to acknowledge that the Inter- 
relationships as expressed or implied in the text do exist, and because 
of their far reaching consequences, they must play a key role in 
development decisions is natural systems are to continue to effectively 
function In our environment. 

Therefore, the Individual elements of this environmental Inventory 
continually need to be combined, not only with one another, but also 
with Information on land use, economics, transportation, population, 
housing and many other I terns for use In preparing comprehensive land use 
plans and for formulating decisions concerning specific projects and 
programs. 



NTRODUCTI ON 



PURPOSE AND SCOPE 



The way in which our natural systems, and in particular our land 
resources are planned, or in many instances not planned, has a great 
influence on the quality of our environment. It is becoming apparent 
that land use decisions have a direct relationship to environmental 
qua 1 i ty. 

In our efforts to promote growth and enhance the economic utilization 
of natural resources it is often easy to overlook that many activities 
are still closely tied to the natural resources and systems of the 
earth. It is, therefor'^, important to recognize that the materials and 
energy resources required to support our growth originate from and are 
returned to these ecological sector. Following mans utilization by- 
products of these resources returned to the environment as waste are 
reass imulated by natural systems. Environmental Impacts result when 
imbalances occur and natural systems are unable to cope with resource 
by-products . 

Continued anticipated increases in the size of human populations will 
in part serve to compound ecological problems due to mans dependence 
on the products of the environment. In the long term, in order to avoid 
the potential loss in individual freedoms due to environmental limit- 
ations, the distribution of production and consumption activities must 
be compatible with the ecological characteristics of the environment. 
To place these considerations into perspective, it is important to 
recognize that, as residents of north central Florida, we depend on 
natural resources for many services such as water supply, flood control, 
purification of waste materials, recreation, visual aesthetics, fishing 
and game propagation. Moreover, if agricultural resources are included, 
then we depend upon this resource for our food supply. In the past, 
the spread of urban communities has often resulted in the alteration of 
natural systems In preference to artificial systems which are more 
expensive in terms of time, money, energy and materials. The one small 
but common example is the destruction of numerous shade trees in 
development areas prior to the construction of generally inefficient, 
high energy consuming single family dwellings. Since 1973, continual 
reports on the status of our declining energy reserves has reinforced 
the need for energy conservation efforts. When placed in an economic 
perspective, the stimulus for motivation has provided a powerful, 
hopefully adequate incentive to plan for changes. 



Many times in the past, planning projects have been based on economic, 
political, engineering and other concepts that have considered natural 
or environmental processes as only incidental to primary project goals , 
This has come about not so much because decision makers pay no heed to 
environmental issues, but because environmental concepts are often 
complex, difficult to comprehend in their entirety and potential long 
term problems and system interrelations are hard to quantify and define. 

It is apparent that provisions for human well being and the maintenance 
of a high standard of living depend in large part on the effective 
utilization of our natural resources. For north central Florida, the 
evaluation of natural resources is an essential element in the overall 
planning process. Their inclusion becomes particularly important when 
they are viewed in terms of their intimate role in the development of 
effective long range plans for managing land and water resources. 

This study, therefore, presents an effort to compile basic data on 
natural systems in the region for input into the comprehensive land 
use planning process. The suitability maps prepared for this study 
are not land use maps. They do, however, depict the distribution of 
natural systems throughout the region. Their inclusion into the 
comprehensive planning process, which serves to optimise the com- 
patibility of different land uses, is essential in order to ensure 
stable long term productivity of the land. Recognizing that the real 
world possesses a very complex natural system, this report becomes a 
first step for north central Florida in the search for an effective 
means of rational development of the physical environment. 



METHODOLOGY 



Because the interactions between man and his environment are numerous, 
subtle and complex, there are no simple solutions to problems involving 
natural resources. Due to the difficulty in envisioning these inter- 
relations, it is necessary to employ a systems, or a whole-picture, 
approach for comparing, visualizing and evaluating the complex assoc- 
iations between the principal natural resources of the region. There- 
fore, an overlay technique, similar to that promulgated by McHarg (1969), 
has been utilized in this report to compare and describe the regions, 
geology, water resources, soils, vegetation, wildlife and other charact- 
eristic resources in terms of their capabilities or limitations. 

On the basis of data summarized and presented in discussions for each 
natural resource individual interpretative maps have been prepared. 
Each map illustrates the basic components of each resource and by a 
system of pattern intensity presents a general ranking of resource 
components as they relate to the potentials or limitations imposed with 
respect to increasing intensity of land uses offered by each particular 
component. 



For purposes o^ resource comparison, each map has been limited to six 
categories of pattern intensity in which the lightest (or white) 
sections represent areas having the least environmental sensitivity (or 
are most suited for development) and the dense (darker) patterns 
represent areas that are more environmentally sensitive or have the 
highest relative natural value. These patterns represent only the 
relative sensitivity or suitability of each resource as it relates 
to the components represented on each individual map. Because of the 
large number of possible interactions between elements of each map, 
no attempt was made to assign quantitative values to each category or 
to adjust pattern intensity on any map to reflect the relative 
importance of one resource with resources represented on other maps. 
Therefore, each map is intended to illustrate the relative value of 
each resource element only in respect to the particular resource map. 

In order to facilitate an analysis of the recognized resource values a 
clear acetate copy of each map was prepared. A visual comparison between 
all or selected resources and land use systems can therefore be made by 
superimposing any or all of the individual maps over a light source. 
For purposes of reproduction, it is not possible to include acetate 
overlays with each published document. The original maps, however, 
will be available for inspection at the Council offices. 

Despite the limitations imposed by qualitative rather than quantitative 
data, the system of map overlays employed allows the comparison of a 
variety of resources and v'sually defines areas having significant 
limitations or suitability for growth. This comparison allows qualita- 
tive decisions to be made on general trends and Intensities of land use 
for the region in order that the resources of the land may be used for 
the highest and best interests of its inhabitants. 



PHYS I OGRAPHY 



I MTRODUCTI ON 



A consideration of earth features or physical geography is an Important 
element In land use planning. Topographic characteristics of the 
region, reflecting variations in elevation, land forms and degree of 
slope, affect the region's ecology and suitability for human use. 
More specifically, land forms often greatly influence the type and cost 
of development, control the rate and direction of water runoff, 
contribute to landscape aesthetics. Influence weather and climate 
and affect the type and amount of vegetation and wildlife in the 
reg ion. 

Topographic Information can be obtained from several sources and Is 
most commonly found in the form of maps or aerial photographs. The 
United State Geologlcc^l Survey (USGS), a division of the Department of 
the Interior, produces standard topographic maps covering the entire 
United States. Each map is bounded by parallels of latitude and 
meridians of longitude. These "quadrangle" maps are produced in three 
series: a 7~l/2 minute series covering 7~l/2 minutes of latitude and 
longitude at a scale of 1:2^,000; a 15 minute series covering 15 minutes 
of latitude and longitude at a scale of 1:62,500; and a 30 minute 
series covering 30 minutes of latitude and longitude at a scale of 
1:125,000. The two 30 minute maps which cover the region, Gainesville, 
Florida and Valdosta, Georgia, are particularly useful for defining the 
major land forms of north central Florida. 

The topography of the region owes Its character to three primary factors, 
The first involves alternating advances and recessions of the sea 
during each of the major Pleistocene (10,000 to 2,000,000 years ago) 
Ice ages. Terraces or wave-cut beaches eroded into local land sur- 
faces wherever each advance remained stationary before ultimately 
retreating. As many as five terraces represented as hills or rises in 
local land surface ranging to over 200 feet in elevation have been 
Identified in Florida, several of which Including the Pamlico, Silver 
Bluff, Okefenokee, and the Wicomico terraces have been identified in the 
reg Ion . 

The second factor Is the solution by ground and surface waters of the 
relatively soft limestone formations underlying much of the area. The 
term karst topography is used where such solution has served to divert 



waters to underground routes or create lakes by forming depressions In 
the limestone down to the ground water level. Such differentia] 
solution has been a significant factor in creating lakes, eliminating 
surface drainage by streams, and forming sinkholes in some areas. 

A third factor influencing the shape of topography is erosion including 
both stream erosion and sheet wash. The abundant rainfall recorded at 
all stations within the region periodically enhances the potential for 
erosion, particularly in sloping or transitional areas. 

In general, the north central Florida region is divided between two 
major physiographic provinces, the Northern Highlands and the Coastal 
Lowlands. The former includes the majority of Bradford, Union, Col- 
umbia, and Hamilton Counties in addition to portions of Alachua, 
Suwannee, and Taylor Counties. In general, the terrain in the southern 
portion of this province is maturely dissected into gently rolling 
hills. The highest elevations are found northward into the flatter 
undlssected parts of the province where streams generally have made 
little Incision into the relatively flat and often swampy interior. 

The Coastal Lowlands include most or all of Dixie, Taylor, Lafayette, 
and Gilchrist Counties as well as the more southwestern portions of 
Alachua, Suwannee, Madison, and Hamilton Counties. The Coastal Lowlands 
are typified by generally flat topography, sloping gradually south- 
westward to the Gulf of Mexico. The entire lowlands area is character- 
ized by large, poorly drained swamps, marshes and forested lands with 
a number of lakes and streams. The coast along the Gulf in Dixie and 
Taylor Counties Is typified by vast expanses of coastal marshes with 
relatively few areas of natural beach. The General Physiographic 
Map which follows Illustrates the major features of the region. 



REGIONAL OVERVIEW 



The Central Highlands extends completely across the northern part of the 
State and into Georgia and Alabama. It Is limited to the south and 
east by an erosional scarp which represents the most persistent topo- 
graphic break in the State. The continuity of this scarp, known as the 
Cody Scarp, is unbroken except by major stream valleys. It Is thought 
to represent the retreating edge of a formerly more extensive high 
plain v/hlch sloped northward toward the Okefenokee Swamp. 

The Northern Highlands is a remnant of a once continuous highland that 
has been broken down by erosion and solution. East of the Suv-/annee 
River and near the scarp the land is maturely dissected Into a rolling 
terrain. Toward the north, the terrain flattens considerably where the 
Highlands remain relatively undlssected by streams. The highlands are 
represented In the subsurface by Miocene sands and clays and with 



limestones evident at the surface In the lowlands. Principal geo- 
morphlc features of the Northern Highlands Include the Western Valley, 
High Springs Gap and Brooksville Ridge. 

The Brooksville Ridge is a linear feature approximately 110 miles in 
length. Elevations on its irregular surface vary from about 70 to 
200 feet. It is composed of a thick sequence of sands believed to 
have been deposited as a result of the Wicomico stand of the sea at 
about 100 feet in elevation. The relative Insolubility of Its component 
sediments has allowed the Brooksville Ridge to persist as a highland while 
surrounding lands have been lowered by solution of underlying lime- 
stones. The Ridge itself has few continuous valleys and exhibits little 
surface drainage. 

The geomorphlc feature known as the High Springs Gap lies directly 
north of the Brooksville Ridge. It merges with the Western Valley to 
the south where limestones are noted as lying at or near the earth's 
surface. The Santa Fe River flows through this erosional gap toward 
the Suwannee River. 

It Is of note that there is a tendency for streams to go underground 
In the lower part of the scarp zone west of Gainesville. Except for the 
Suwannee every stream which enters the scarp zone passes underground 
re-emerging again after crossing the scarp. East of Gainesville, all 
streams retain a surface flow prior to crossing the scarp. The 
difference in flow characteristics Is attributable to exposures of the 
clayey Hawthorn Formation in the eastern portion of the area, and of 
soluble limestones to the west. The absence of the Hawthorn Formation 
causes the piezometric surface to be lower than land surface allowing 
streams such as the Santa Fe River to pass underground through solution 
channel s . 

The southwestern portion of the region is part of the physiographic 
province known as the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. Beginning at the present 
coast of Dixie and Taylor Counties, this province extends Inland to the 
Cody Scarp bordering in Northern Highlands. Including the Wicomico, 
three marine terraces, including the Silver Bluff and the Pamlico, 
represent ancient shorelines in this province. 

The Silver Bluff terrace is the youngest represented in the region. In 
Dixie County It extends inland as far as six miles and is In part 
represented by the coastal marshes. The Silver Bluff terrace is noted 
as being considerably more narrow I n Tay lor County. 

Although the Pamlico Sea did not extend inland to any great extent, it 
produced a series of sand dunes parallel to the coast In Taylor County. 
It is generally defined by a marine terrace lying betv/een the 10 and 
25 foot contours In both Dixie and Taylor Counties. 

In western Gilchrist and eastern Dixie Counties, the relatively flat 
svyampy land surface is underlain by shallow limestones which represent 



11 



a continuation of the limestone shelf extending northward from Levy 
County, known as the Chief land Limestone Plain. A series of sand hills 
to the east of this plain, known as Bell Ridge, is mostly likely as- 
sociated with a relict barrier chain. The elevations of these hills 
vary between 80 and 100 feet above sea level. 

An area known as the Wacassassa Flats lies between Bell Ridge and the 
Brooksville Ridge. The origin of this swampy area is not certain. its 
lithology varies from a sand to clayey sand and its sediments may be 
found to be between ]k to 18 feet thick over a limestone surface. 

The Western Valley of western Alachua and eastern Gilchrist Counties 
serves to connect the High Springs Gap and Alachua Lake Cross Valley, 
the latter named for the former Alachua Lake, now Paynes Prairie, which 
occupies the basin. Each of these areas is characterized by shallow 
limestones and the general absence of surface drainage systems. This 
valley in Alachua and Gilchrist Counties has been called the Williston 
Limestone Plain and is notable because of the absence of Impermeable 
sediments which permit the rapid movement of rainfall into the under- 
lying limestones of the Florldan aquifer. 

A notable feature of the Coastal Lowlands Is the extensive system of 
coastal swamps. The irregular coastline of Dixie and Taylor Counties Is 
characterized by rock outcroppi ngs , oyster reefs and island clusters. 
Beaches and semi -enclosed bays are rare and salt marshes line extensive 
areas of its shoreline and penetrate inland up to several miles in some 
places often merging with freshwater swamps. Although sand beaches are 
common to Florida's coast, the general absence of beaches in this region 
is attributed to its low energy shoreline which does not enhance beach 
deve lopmen t . 



INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHY 



Urban development tends to follow the direction of least topographic 
reslstence dependent only on limitations Imposed by modern technology. 
It may often be observed that rivers and valleys tend to channel urban 
expansion; major highways and railroads tend to follow river channel 
routes because of the generally gradual continuous grades; and bridges 
that often open up new areas for development tend to be constructed at 
the narrowest points of rivers of v;here the river is shallow, exhibits 
hard bottom and easy access grades. Therefore, topography to a large 
extent helps shape patterns of growth. 

Topography, or landform. Interacts with those physical characteristics 
that help shape or form it, such as type of soils, drainage patterns, 
climate and vegetation. Therefore, because of Its imposition on the 
natural environment, land development, whether for relatively low 



12 



intensity agricultural uses or high intensity residential use, must 
Insure the stability of topography during physical development by 
providing adequate grading (slope stabilization), drainage and soil 
structures in order to make the best use of the site within the limit- 
ations set by the topography. 

There are almost no areas In the region that possess topographic 
limitations so great as to preclude specific types of development. 
Modern engineering practices can override almost all limitations if 
economics are not a problem. However, there are areas which do limit 
themselves to particular uses because of topography. Examples of 
such areas would Include swamps and other poorly drained areas, steeply 
sloping stream banks and flood plains. 

One concept specifically concerned with the limitations to development 
as imposed by topography Is referred to as slope use zoning. This 
concept revolves around the maxim which maintains that within the frame- 
work of construction practices and technology, there are certain slopes, 
or ranges of slopes, upon which certain types of construction can be 
most economically undertaken. 

It has been observed that on certain specific slopes the cost of con- 
struction to meet the common needs of certain land uses will be minimized. 
This cost of construction, as reflected In the consumer cost, includes 
not only the cost of the structure, but also the costs of site pre- 
paration, site development, utility services and the provision of necessary 
drainage facilities and access roads. Some of the basic provisions of 
the slope use zoning concept are outlined In Table 1. 

The effects of erosion Increase directly with degree and length of 
slope; therefore. It is sometimes desirable to establish constraints 
to development based upon slope. As exhibited on Table 1 low slopes 
are usually highly desirable for residential development because they 
are typically well drained, easier to build upon that steeper slopes, and 
do not Impose limitations to vehicle access. However, even on low to 
moderate slopes, precautions may need to be taken to retard or prevent 
serious erosion, especially during construction stages of development. 

Contigent upon soil and bedrock conditions, slopes over ]0% generally 
impose greater construction problems and costs In order to Insure slope 
Integrity and the stability of structures on such slopes. While steep 
slopes do provide opportunities for creative architecture and site 
planning and may be desirable from an aesthetic point of view, increasing 
density of units often creates other potentially hazardous conditions 
which must be anticipated early in the planning process. 

In general, very steep slopes are unsuitable for any form of urban, 
agricultural or forestry use because removal of trees and other vegeta- 
tion produces rapid erosion, resulting in sedimentation in streams and 
heightening of flood peaks. Such slopes are most appropriately reserved 
for limited recreational uses. 



13 



TABLE I 
GENERAL SLOPE USE ZONING 

Slope LImi tat ions 

0-1^ Drainage problems make many types of develop- 

ment unsuitable. Limited farming and large 
scale lineal production industry are often 
economically feasible. 

]-S% Commercial and residential developments of 

all types are feasible because of generally 
good natural drainage and easy slopes. Good 
general farming potential. Roads begin to 
follow topographic contours. 

5-12^ Small scale commercial structures and in- 

tensive small industry feasible. Terrace 
type landscaping favors clustered single 
family residences on large lots and roads 
are generally parallel to contours. General 
farmina from 5~8^, specialized farming to 
]2% 

over 12% industry and commerce usually economically 

impractical. Isolated single 'amily residences 
on large lots are feasible. All types of 
roads become expensive and only specialized 
farming i s practical . 



In north central Florida, slopes are not generally found in extremes. 
The greatest topographic problem areas in the region are those having 
very low or flat slopes exhibiting poor drainage and which often appear 
as wetlands or flood hazard areas on topographic maps. Only small areas 
appear to have excessively steep slopes, and those primarily occur 
along stream margins. Moderate to steep slopes are generally found 
in those areas of the region where the topographically higher sand 
terrace deposits grade westward and down to the Hawthorn Formation and 
subsequently to the limestone plain of the Coastal Lowlands. 

In all but a few areas, steepness of slope does not impair development 
potential. Due to modern engineering technology and the desire for an 
aesthetically pleasing environment, limited development often occurs in 
areas of moderate to steep slopes. As long as proper development 
limitations and controls are observed during development and in early 
planning stages, limited areas of moderate to steep slopes in the region 
pose serious threats only when located or developed in such a manner as 
to create undue adverse environmental impact. Such Impact could 
result in part from the destruction of natural vegetation causing 



]k 



Increased erosion and sedimentation; the destruction of valuable areas 
of unique river forest vegetation; inadequate provisions for surface 
runoff in terms of both quality and quantity into natural water 
courses; and site deterioration caused by a poor accounting of soil, 
watertable and bedrock properties during the planning process. 

Areas of very flat slopes cover significantly large areas in the region 
and usually exhibit other properties which identify them as having poor 
or limited development potential. These might include poor soil 
suitability for development, flood plain designation, low relief with 
typical low-land topographic characteristics such as a high water table 
and lowland vegetative species. Therefore, physiographic limitations 
must also be assessed In terms of associated natural systems or con- 
ditions caused by the interaction between environmental factors. 

For the purpose of this study, it was not necessary to prepare a map 
illustrating the region's topography principally due to limitations 
imposed by map scale. Areas in the region having steep slopes are of 
such limited areal extent as to make them almost indistinguishable on 
the map scale utilized in this report. Large areas of relatively low 
slopes on the other hand, are readily identified on available topographic 
maps and in most cases, because of other characteristic features such 
as their vegetative or wetland nature, otherwise reflect topographic 
inf 1 uence. 



15 



i 



CLI MATE 



NTRODUCTI ON 



An overview of climate is an essential element in a consideration of 
north central Florida's natural resources. The subtropical nature of 
our environment is one of the region's most notable resources. Its 
value lies not only in the human perception of climate but, perhaps more 
importantly, for the net input of energy to natural systems due to 
latitude and solar insolation. As an integral resource of the region, 
it helps shape or modify virtually every other natural resource and 
influence human activities. 



GENERAL REGIONAL CLIMATE 



Climatic conditions in the region represent a zone of transition between 
temperate and humi d subtrop ica 1 climates generally typical of the 
continental east coast below 35° of latitude. It is characterized by 
long, warm and relatively humid summers and mild winters with periodic 
invasions of colder northern air masses. The three principal interacting 
factors which influence climate In north-central Florida include: 

1 ) Lat i tude ; 

2) Proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and; 

3) Numerous inland lakes and wetland areas. 

Latitude in large part determines the intensity and durationof insolation 
(solar radiation) reaching the earth's surface. During summer months, 
when greatest, insolation heating the earth creates strong convective 
currents which often produce summer thunderstorms. The influence and 
interaction of tropical maritime air masses and continental or polar air 
masses during the year, modified by local topography, greatly contribute 
to climatic conditions. 

Summer heat is often tempered by sea breezes In coastal areas and by 
frequent afternoon and evening thundershowers in all areas. Thunder- 
storms occur on the average about one-half of a 1 1 summer days. They 
often result in a 10-20°F drop in temperature. 



17 



Gentle breezes of about 5~10 miles per hour occur over most of the 
region throughout the year. Wind directions are locally Influenced by 
convectional forces inland and the "land and sea breeze" effect near 
the coast. Prevailing wind directions in the region are sometimes 
erratic but, in general, are northerly during winter months and southerly 
in the summer. Such breezes serve to mitigate otherwise oppressive con- 
ditions of temperature and humidity. 

Little convectional rainfall occurs during winter months due to a 
reduction in insolation, producing cooler earth surfaces, and frontal 
winds associated with high pressure areas developing over the con- 
tinent. Cold waves, generated from high pressure frontal systems 
seldom last over 2-3 days or result in temperatures much below 15"20°F. 
The greatest recorded snowfall in Florida was recorded on February 13, 
1899, when four inches were recorded at Lake Butler. 

Climatic extremes represented by hurricanes, tornadoes and hailstorms 
do not constitute significant events in the region's climate. Hail- 
storms occasionally occur during spring and summer months associated 
with thunderstorms. Tornadoes and snowstorms are also infrequent with a 
probability of less than 3% for both. Hurricanes also constitute 
major climatic events with winds commonly exceeding 70 miles per hour 
and rainfalls over 7 inches. In north central Florida, there is 
approximately a S% chance of a hurricane passing through the area. It 
is of note that a hurricane of 100-year storm Intensity can be expected 
to create tides up to 12-1^ feet in the coastal areas of Dixie and 
Taylor Counties. 

Specific climatic conditions occuring within the region are addressed In 
suceeding paragraphs. 



Tempe r a t u re 



The warmest months of the year in north central Florida are May through 
September, when temperatures average between 75° and 80°F. The coldest 
winter months are November through February with temperatures averaging 
55° to 60°F. Table 2 presents the average monthly temperatures for 
Madison, Lake City and Gainesville, The slighly cooler temperatures 
for stations north of Gainesville are evident for most months of the year, 

Many given summer temperatures vary little from day to day while 
considerable day to day variations are evident during winter months. 
Temperatures exceeding 100°F are relatively Infrequent In north central 
Florida. Conversely, freezing temperatures at or below 32°F can be 
expected to occur from kS to 56 days each year, depending on location 
In the region. Table ^ Illustrates the average dates between which 
freezing temperatures might be expected to occur during any given year. 



TABLE 2 
AVERAGE TEMPERATURE 



STATION 


PERIOD 




























Yearly 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Aver. 


Mad i son 


53.9 


56.0 


61.6 


- 


75.8 


80.3 


81.3 


81.3 


77.9 


69.7 


60.2 


54.5 


- 


Lake City 


54.9 


56.7 


62.0 


68.9 


75.0 


79.5 


80.8 


80.9 


78.0 


70.2 


61.4 


55.8 


68.7 


Ga i nes- 


57.0 


58.6 


63.6 


70.0 


75.8 


81.1 


81.2 


79.1 


71.8 


71.8 


63.3 


57.8 


69.9 


V i 1 1 e 





























TABLE 3 
AVERAGE RAINFALL 



STATION 


PERIOD 




























Yearly 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug . 


Sep. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Aver. 


Mad i son 


3.43 


3.94 


5.36 


3.88 


3.34 


5.61 


7.19 


6.03 


5.48 


2.61 


2.39 


3.37 


52.6 


Lake City 


3.43 


3.87 


4.06 


3.27 


3.84 


8.48 


7.37 


6.85 


5.88 


3.52 


2.29 


3.26 


54.1 


Gai nes- 


2.84 


3.70 


4.26 


3.02 


3.54 


6.31 


8.03 


8.25 


5.67 


3.67 


1.92 


2.88 


54.6 


vi 1 1 e 





























TABLE 4 
FREEZE DATA-'^ 



STATION 


AV. DATE LAST 


AV. DATE FIRST 


AV. DAYS 




SPRING OCCURRENCE 


FALL OCCURRENCE 


BETWEEN DATES 


Mad i son 


Feb. 19 


Dec. 2 


286 


Lake City 


Feb. 22 


Dec. 1 


282 


Ga inesvi 1 1 e 


Feb. 14 


Dec. 6 


295 



"Temperatures at or below 32*^F. 

Source: Climatic data drawn from Climate of the States, Volume 1, 

NOAA, 1974, and CI imato log i ca 1 Data Annual Summary for Florida, 
1976, prepared by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- 
tion (NOAA). 



19 



Precipitation 



Rainfall in north central Florida varies greatly from year to year and 
its distribution is quite uneven throughout each year. The average 
annual rainfall in the region is about 52 to 5^ inches, yet one year 
in ten may have more than 85 inches or less than 23 inches. Even though 
yearly rainfalls are relatively large, the region is not immune to 
droughts. Periods of prolonged rainfall deficiency are occasionally 
experienced in the region and Florida as a whole which can have sub- 
stantial adverse impacts to water supplies and the agriculture industry. 

The seasonal distribution of rainfall is similar throughout the region. 
There is a distinct summer rainy season from June through August as 
illustrated in Table 3 of average monthly rainfalls. However, the 
beginning and end of the rainy season may vary considerably. A 
secondary seasonal peak in rainfall occurs in the late winter months of 
February and March. The fall months of October and November are notably 
lower in rainfall and are typically the driest months of the year. 
Monthly average precipitation values may vary considerably from year 
to year with values differing considerably from given monthly rainfalls. 

The greatest part of summer rainfall originates from local thunderstorms. 
These are primarily local by nature therefore, large differences in 
monthly and annual rainfalls between localities are common. Summer 
rains lasting one or more days are usually associated with tropical 
disturbances and are generally infrequent. 



Other Climatic Factors 



Variations in relative humidity are generally small with inland areas 
with greater temperature extremes generally having lower values. On 
the average, values of humidity range from 50 to 65 percent during 
afternoon hours to about 85 to 95 percent during night and early 
morning hours. 

Heavy fogs may be expected to occur during night and early morning 
hours of the late fall, winter and early spring months. They may be 
expected to occur on the average about 25 to 30 days in any year. 
Dissipation usually occurs shortly after sunrise. 

Although southern Florida experiences a higher percentage of possible 
sunshine hours than the northern portion of the state, records indicate 
that the sun shines about two-thirds of the possible sunshine hours 
in the state. On the average, the maximum possible hours of sunshine 
in the region varies between 1^ hours during June to 10 hours during 



20 



winter months having the shortest days. Generally clear skies, 
averaging k-J percent cloud cover on any day, contributes to the amount 
of sunshine impacting on the earth. 

Air pollution in the form of vehicular emissions, products of land 
clearing operations, noise and wastes from industrial centers are also 
important climatic components. Fortunately, however, air pollutants in 
significant concentrations constitute primarily local impacts within 
the region. 

Air movements over the region are usually sufficiently unstable to 
discourage the potential for episodes of air pollution. The general 
pattern of Trade Wind circulation and summer patterns of high convection 
associated with the formation of thunderstorms generally insure the 
dispersal of air pollutants in the region. This is borne out by a fore- 
cast by the Department of Environmental Regulation indicating an average 
of only ten high air pollution potential days for the region in any given 
year. 



I NFLUENCE OF CL IMATE 



The influence of climate on urban structure has been all bjt neglected 
In the planning and design of our modern human environment. The 
resulting waste In money, natural resources and fossil fuels may never 
be fully realized. The "energy crisis" warnings that have deluged 
the nation since 1970, predicting impending world shortages and the 
need for conservation, have served to highlight deficiencies in urban 
des ign. 

In general, there are eight determinants of climate quality that 
influence urban structure and development: 1) latitude, 2) altitude, 
2) landform, k) water bodies, 5) temperature 6) wind, 7) humidity, 
and 8) precipitation. in order to successfully cope with climatic 
conditions in Florida, early settlers designed structures to take 
advantage of these determinants to the extent materials and technology 
permitted. In recent years, rapid developments In methods of climate 
control within structures, coupled with an apparently limitless supply 
of cheap energy, led to the development of inefficient structures and 
accompanying urban forms highly dependent on outside sources of energy 
for utilization. It is rapidly becoming apparent that the shape of 
future structures will rely heavily on innovative energy efficient 
technology if a high quality of life Is to be available for our 
ci t i zens . 

Although the portion of the nation's energy consumption used In the 
residential sector Is only 19 percent, as compared to k2 percent for 
industry and 25 percent in transportation, it Is of major significance. 



21 



While energy users in industry and transportation consume sizeable 
amounts of energy over relatively short time periods, the siting and 
construction of housing establishes an energy demand which can be 
expected to last through several decades of anticipated use. Clearly 
climatic adaptations in structure and urban design must be undertaken 
In the interest of both the individual as well as the general public. 
The potential economic and resource savings will greatly influence our 
future "qual I ty of 1 ife." 



22 



GEOLOGY 



GEOLOG I C OVERVl EW 



The Florida Plateau, which separates the Gulf of Mexico from the 
Atlantic Ocean, consists of thick layers of limestone and unconsolidated 
sediment which have accumulated over a basement (the Continental Shelf) 
of sandstone and igneous rock. By the intermittent submergence of this 
plateau in shallow seas over the past 150 million years, and subsequent 
deposition of carbonate (limestone) and clastic materials, the Florida 
peninsula slowly formed and now represents the above water portion of 
the Florida Plateau. 

While the Plateau itself is comprised of rock formations thousands of 
feet In thickness, only those few rock formations lying at or near the 
earth's surface are relied upon for resources important for mans 
survival, growth and development. There are many facets which must be 
examined in a consideration of these resources. The relatively thin 
layers of soil and low relief of Florida's topography might suggest that 
geologic considerations are not important, yet they greatly influence 
the type, degree and quality of many surface activities. The chemical 
composition and physical characteristics of those rock strata acces- 
sible from the surface often make them amendable to the hydraulic 
transfer and storage of water in aquifers. These near-surface materials 
also yield useful rock and mineral products such as gypsum, clay, 
phosphates, limestones, and marls, all of which are useful raw materials 
for a wide variety of human applications. Many such geological pro- 
ducts are found beneath north central Florida, some of which have been 
mined in the past and others which may be commercially valuable In the 
future. 



GENERAL GEOLOGY 



The topography and structure of those formations at or near the earth's 
surface show evidence of past geologic activity. Natural uplifts in 
the earth's crust resulted In the formation of structural features such 
as the Peninsular Arch and the Ocala Uplift. Both are evident In north 
central Florida and have created slight regional slopes toward the Gulf 



23 



of Mexico. Subsequent erosion helped form much of the topography of 
north central Florida. With respect to more recent geologic activity 
one source reports that there have been numerous episodes of natural 
seismic activity on the Florida platform only two of which have been 
significant. Two earthquakes are cited, in 1879 and 1900, which were 
of sufficient magnitude to have been recorded in the area of St. John's 
River Fault Zone. Other fault zones related to Tampa Bay and Charlotte 
Harbour have apparently not been active since Paleocene time (40 
million years ago). Therefore, in terms of seismic or geologic 
activity, the Florida Plateau appears to be regarded as a highly 
stable area with very minor earthquake potential. 

In general, the rock formations lying within several hundred feet of 
the earth's surface in north central Florida may be described collectively 
as consolidated and semi -consol idated marine and non-marine deposits of 
sand, clay, marl, limestone, and dolomite (a magnesium rich limestone). 
The individual rock formations discussed in succeeding paragraphs will 
further describe these relatively "shallow" deposits. Those lying 
deepest below the region are discussed first or in this case, oldest 
to youngest. It is noted that all formations described are not con- 
tinuous in the subsurface beneath the region. The aerial extent of 
those formations exposed at or lying immediately beneath the surficial 
soils layer are depicted on the general geology map. 

In general, the surface deposits of north central Florida are mostly 
limestone which resulted from marine deposition from the Eocene Epoch 
(deposited from 58 to 36 million years ago), and the Oligocene Epoch 
(deposited from 36 to 25 million years ago). These limestone are 
generally very high in calcium carbonate content, and occasionally have 
been silicified to material commonly known as chert. In the eastern 
portion of north central Florida, these limestones are covered by 
Miocene to recent sands and clays (deposited from 25 million years ago 
to the present) of variable thickness, with the thickest sequences 
being found in highland areas. 

The Lake City Limestone, lying beneath the region at considerable depth, 
is the oldest formation from which supplies of fresh water are obtained. 
Nowhere is this formation exposed at the surface in Florida. It is 
principally a dolomitic limestone which includes many beds of sulphur, 
foss i 1 i ferous limestone and seams of peat or lignite. The Lake City 
Limestone approaches the surface in southeastern Alachua County where it 
has been found lying approximately 150 feet below mean sea level. It is 
overlain in the subsurface by the Avon Park Limestone which is a dense 
porous dolomite with few beds of limestone. The Avon Park is the 
oldest formation exposed at the surface in the state. Overlying these 
foundations are the limestone formations known collectively as the 
Ocala Group. These limestones are usually considered as a unit because 
of their similarity. They include the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal 
River Formations. These formations lie st ra tegraphi ca I ly above the 
Avon Park Formation, and are noteworthy because they comprise the bulk of 
the tremendous groundwater reservoir known as the Floridan Aquifer. 



2h 



of those formations which comprise the Ocala Group, the Inglis Formation 
is the oldest, and does not outcrop at the surface. The overlying 
Williston Formation, as the oldest exposed formation in the region, 
occurs at the surface only in the southwestern portion of Dixie County. 
Both formations can be generally described as shallow, marine, fragmental 
foss i 1 i ferous limestones. Both are noted as an important source of 
roadstone in Florida. The Crystal River Formation lies above the 
Williston and is exposed at or near the surface of the earth and has 
been found near the surface in Alachua, Dixie, Gilchrist, Lafayette 
and Madison Counties. This formation was formed as a shallow marine 
limestone and contains many large foraminifer and mollusks. The 
Crystal River Formation is noted as an important source of high 
calcium limestone and has been recognized as a chief supply or road- 
stone in Florida. 

The Suwannee Limestone has been found to overlie the Ocala Group in 
portions of Taylor, Suwannee and Madison Counties. Due to their 
similarity, there is often difficulty distinguishing between the 
limestones of the Ocala Group and the Suwannee Limestone except by 
characteristic fossil elements. The Ocala Group, Avon Park and Lake 
City Formations, and the Suwannee Limestone and sometimes the overlying 
limestone beds of the Hawthorn Formation are considered together as 
the Floridan Aquifer because of their similar excellent porosity and 
permeability. The value of these formations for fresh water storage 
is described in the section entitled "Mater Resources." 

The Hawthorn Formation overlies both the Ocala Group and the Suwannee 
Limestone and is exposed at the surface over much of Hamilton, Alachua, 
Suwannee and Columbia Counties. The Hawthorne Formation is a marine 
deposit consisting of thick beds of clay and sandy clay and continuing 
beds of sandy, phosphatic limestone. It reaches a maximum thickness of 
about 200 feet in the region and because of its composition and physical 
characteristics, usually forms a gently rolling surface. The Choctaw- 
hatchee Formation lies beneath the surface in northeastern and 
eastern Alachua County and is exposed only in a few prairies or low 
areas where overriding sediments have been removed. The formation is 
comprised of foss i 1 i ferous clay and marl and small amounts of 
phosphate pebbles. Generally equated in age and origin with the 
Hawthorne Formation is the Alachua Formation. They both have a some- 
what similar lithology and despite the relatively small area over which 
it Is exposed, the Alachua Formation is recognized on the map of general 
geology because of the low grade "hard rock" phosphate deposits occuring 
within it. 

The Alachua Formation forms low rolling hills over the Ocala Group in 
western Alachua County and small portions of Lafayette and Madison 
Counties. This formation is primarily a terrestrial sand deposit 
often found interbedded with phosphate pebbles and sandy clays. The 
phosphate occurrences in this formation are significant and will be 
further discussed in the chapter entitled "Rock and Mineral Resources." 
The Miccosukee Formation, covers much of Taylor County In the northwestern 



25 



portion of the region. Deposits of the Miccosukee Formation are composed 
of yellow-red, cross-bedded, s i 1 ty and clayey sand that are thought to 
have been deposited as deltaic sediments during Miocene time. 



The fine to medium 
are associated wi t 
sand deposits are 
region. They are 
races consisting 1 
during the early g 
Consisting predomi 
clay, these sands 
north and eastern 
on the geologic ma 
of at least eight 



sand and silts which cover almost the entire region 
h Recent and Pleistocene terrace sand deposits. These 
the youngest formations which are recognized In the 
collectively comprised of several wave-formed ter- 
argely of marine sediments which were deposited 
lacial epoch when most of Florida was under water. 
nantly of unconsolidated sand, with lesser amounts of 
vary from 20 to kS feet in thickness over much of the 
portions of the region. They are generally recognized 
p only where they occur in appreciable thicknesses 
to ten feet. 



Table 5 that follows, illustrates the time and stratagraph i c relation- 
ships of these major formations generally recognized in the literature 
as occuring at or near the earth's surface in north central Florida. 
The general range of thickness encountered beneath the region is also 
noted. 



TABLE 5 
GEOLOGIC TIME AND S TRATAG RAP H I C RELATIONSHIPS 
OF FORMATIONS IM NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 



TIME PERIOD 


THICKNESS 






(GEOLOGIC SERIES) 


RANGE 


FORMATION 




Recent/Pleistocene 


0-50 


Sand terrace de 


pos i ts 


PI iocene 


0-65 


Miccosukee 




Miocene 


0-20 


Choctwhatchee 






0-90 


Alachua 






0-160 


Hawthorne 




01 igocene 


0-100 


Suwannee Limestone 


Eocene 


0-140 


Crystal River 






70-205 


Wi 1 1 iston 


Ocala 
Group 




50-70 


1 ng 1 is 






205-525 


Avon Park 






175-560 


Lake C i ty 





Source: Adapted from the Geologic Map of Florida, Florida Bureau of 
Geology, 1964. 



26 



GENERAL GEOLOGIC MAP" 




SYMBOL 



mm 




LEGEND 

FORMATION 

Terrace Deposits 

Miccosukee 

Alachua 

Fort Preston 

Hawthorne 

Suwannee 

Crystal River 

Williston 



SERIES (AGE) 

Pleistocene 

Miocene 



Oligocene 
Eocene 




L 
D 
E 
R 



•Source: Geologic Mop of Florida, Map Series No. 18. Florida Division 
of Geology, May, 1965 



GEOLOGIC MAP PREPARATION 



The map entitled General Geologic Suitability for Development, rep- 
resents the approximate areal distribution of rock formations that 
would be explosed at the earth's surface assuming the thin veneer of 
soil deposits were removed. The formations mapped are grouped according 
to common rock types as shown in the legend as they occur from just 
below the soil zone to depths of expected use for most purposes. 
Therefore, the map is generalized, based on lithologies to facilitate 
easier comparison and understanding. The map characterizes geologic 
formations in terms of materials found from surface exposure, shallow 
borings and other information and is drawn from the environmental 
geology maps prepared by the Florida Bureau of Geology and adapted 
for this comparison. 

The broad generalizations relate limitations to development based upon 
an overview of the physical and chemical character of each rock type, 
it has been prepared with the assistance of Mr. Michael Knapp, a 
geologist with the Florida Bureau of Geology. 

For the purposes of this report, it is necessary to assign relative 
values to each formation based upon each element's suitability or 
sensitivity to a higher intensive land use. The rating scheme is 
subjective in nature and Is based upon a general evaluation of the over- 
all limitations or sensitivity possessed by each formation with regard 
to its value or potential for more intensive development- 

This determination was made basically as follows. Thick sand deposits 
because of the generally good bearing capacity and excellent drainage 
capabilities are noted as having the least limitations or restrictions 
to Intensive land use. Although they cover almost the entire region, 
only areas with relatively thick deposits are Identified as having few 
limitations for more Intensive development. 

The area corresponding to the areal extent of those formations, which 
are, in general, the time equivalent of the Hawthorne Formation, 
contain a prepondernace of sand material. They are, therefore, ranked 
second only to the sand deposits with respect to suitability or develop- 
ment . 

Ongoing studies by the Florida Bureau of Geology have indicated that 
the Suwannee Limestone is largely dolomite west of the Suwannee River. 
As dolomite it Is more suitable for development than other lime- 
stone formations because It presents a hard base rock suitable for 
foundations and Is generally less porous to Infiltration due to the 
recrystal Izat ion of the rock making It less prone to solution by ground 
water such as from septic tanks and other waste discharges. 



29 



The Alachua Formation, recognized as the terrestial equivalent of the 
marine deposited Hawthorne Formation, and 1 i tholog ica 1 ly similar, is 
grouped with the Hawthorne as having moderate development limitations. 
This categorization is made largely because of the variable nature of 
these formations which largely consist of interbedded sands, limestones, 
clays and phosphatic pebbles. Generally, because of their succeptab i 1 ity 
to swelling by clays and poor percolation resulting in standing water 
and inadequate operation of septic tanks, they often pose distinct 
limitations to intensive development. 

The limestone formations of the Ocala Group, including the overlying 
Suwannee Limestone, are assigned highest degree of sensitivity of those 
formations represented at the surface. This evaluation is based on 
the degree to which limestone occurring at the surface may restrict 
construction, particularly underground utilities and, more importantly, 
on the potential afforded for pollution of the subsurface Floridan 
Aquifer through this soluble, porous material. 

The foregoing discussion does not imply that areas with relatively 
high limitations should be barred to construction and development, but 
rather in many cases a greater degree of consideration and possibly 
extensive investment in material and energy would need to be expended 
to preclude potential problems and hazards afforded by geologic 
conditions. Depth of soil overburden above each formation and soil 
characteristics are ")nly two examples where other factors can effect 
growth and development or modify the significance of this geologic 
grouping in any specific area. 



30 




GENERAL GEOLOGIC SUITABILITY 
FOR DEVELOPMENT 



PLEISTOCENE SAND 
DEPOSITS (DEEP) 



CLAYEY-SANDY MATERIALS 



LIMESTONES & DOLOMITES 



/107e KILOMETERS 

Morth CcntrtI Florida Regional Planning Council 



WATER RESOURCES 



I NTRODUCTI ON 



The freshwater resources of Florida Include waters which are stored on 
the land surface as well as those stored in underground reservoirs. 
That water stored on the earth's surface in lakes, rivers, canals, 
reservoirs, and swamps may collectively be termed surface water. 
Water stored in the permeable rock formations or aquifers lying beneath 
the earth's surface is termed groundwater. These water resources are 
continually replenished by rainfall and by incoming flows such as rivers 
from neighboring states. A reduction in water resources also occurs 
on a continuous basis through groundwater and river discharges to the 
ocean, evapotransp i rat ion and human consumption. 

Water is a renewable resource, a more accurately, a recyclable re- 
source. It is neither created nor destroyed through its use or its 
movement through the hydrologic cycle, rather only its character and 
location are changed. Therefore, at any one time, the basic amount of 
water in Florida remains relatively unchanged, although population 
growth and urban and industrial development both continue to put 
incre3sing demands on the available supply. While serious water 
shortages in terms of the entire state appear unlikely, it is certain 
that in future years, water will not be available in sufficient quantities 
in each basin or hydrologic area to fully meet the potential demands 
that will be placed on this resource. Therefore, an analysis of this 
resource has become a vital function of natural resource planning. The 
hydrologic problem then, is fundamentally one of water accounting so 
that a balance of water quality and quantity may be maintained in 
natural systems. 



SURFACE WATER RESOURCES 



General 



From the enclosed drainage basin map, It may be seen that this north 
central Florida region is divided between three major drainage basins: the 



33 



Suwannee, the St. Johns, and the AucIIla-St. Marks. Surface drainage 
is by far dominated by the Suwannee River, which, with Its tributaries, 
remains the most significant surface water feature in the region. 

Abundant lakes and springs are evident throughout the area and con- 
tribute to the aesthetic and recreational values of the region. If 
wetlands, i.e., swamps and marshes, etc., are included, it is apparent 
that the region is rich with a diversity of surface water resources. 

In order to facilitate the assessment of water quality problems, 
Florida's Department of Environmental Regulation has subdivided each 
major river basin into basin segments. Each segment is a discreet 
hydrologic area, or sub-basin, through which water accumulates or 
passes into the major drainage system. Each segment, as seen on the 
drainage basin map, has been assigned an identifying number to 
facilitate identification for planning and processing purposes. 



Drainage Basins 



Of those basins that lie wholly or partially within this eleven county 
region, the Suwannee River basin is the largest. It includes an area of 
11,020 square miles of which 4,127 square miles lies In peninsular 
Florida. All or portions of twelve counties are found within the 
basin including Alachua, Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Dixie, Gilchrist, 
Hamilton, Lafayette, Levy, Madison, Suwannee, and Union. 

The Suwannee River basin in Florida is characterized by lakes, sinks 
and permeable underground limestone formations that store and regulate 
much of the surface runoff before It collects in surface channels. 
The permeable soils that cover much of the land area in the basin are 
often underlain by clays and limestones which also affect the amount of 
runoff that reaches the rivers and streams of the region. 

The three largest tributaries of the Suwannee are the Alapaha, Vilth- 
lacoochee and Santa Fe Rivers. The four are similar In that their 
channels are fifteen to thirty feet deep and often cut through shallow 
overburden into underlying limestone formations. The flood plains of 
each are highly vegetated and generally of high environmental value. 

The Suwannee begins In the Okefenokee Swamp In Georgia where numerous 
channels converge to form the river. From Georgia, It flows In a 
southly direction forty-five miles to White Springs, Florida. It 
then forms a wide 'westward loop picking up Its three principal tributar- 
ies before continuing southwes tward toward the Gulf of Mexico, where 
It empties a few miles north of Cedar Key, Florida. The average flow 
for the upper Suwannee River at the farthest upstream gauging station 



34 



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Rl VERS 5 TR I BUTAR I 



TABLE 6 
ES IN THE 



SUWANNEE RIVER BASIN 



BASIN 


STREAM NAME 


COUNTY 


LENGTH 


DRAINS 


SEGMENT 






(MILES) 


SQ MILES 


21.1 AA 


Alapaha River 


Hami 1 ton 


155.0 


1 ,840.0 




Al 1 igator Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


4.3 






Apalahoochee River 


Hami 1 ton 


30.0 


283.0 




Camp Branch 


Hami 1 ton 


4.3 






Cypress Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


2.2 






Jerry Branch 


Hami 1 ton 


4.0 






Jumping Gul ly Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


6.7 






Mill Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


2.2 






Mitchell Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


3.9 






Poncher Branch 


Hami 1 ton 


2.1 






Rati ift Branch 


Hami 1 ton 


2.2 






Rocky Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


6.5 






Sol Marie 


Hami 1 ton 


2.8 






Sugar Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


3.5 






Swift Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


6.8 


58.0 




Tiger Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


5.4 






Turkey Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


2.2 






Wi thl acoochee River 


Hami 1 ton 


115.0 


2,330.0 




Camp Branch 


Col umbia 


11.5 






Carrey Flat Branch 


Col umbi a 


2.0 






Deep Creek 


Col umb ia 


13.6 






Fal 1 ing Creek 


Col umbia 


13.8 






Robinson Branch 


Col umbi a 


9.4 






Tiger Branch 


Col umbia 


2.8 






Rocky Creek 


Suwannee 


8.1 




21.2 BA 


Blocksnake Creek 


Mad i son 


2.0 






Norton Creek 


Mad i son 


6.9 






Springhead Creek 


Mad i son 


1.5 






Mill Creek 


Lafayette 


4.1 




21.3 AA 


Al 1 igator Creek 


Bradford 


7.8 


24.3 




Gum Creek 


Bradford 


3.0 






New River 


Bradford 


29.2 


292.0 




Sampson River 


Bradford 


6.3 


67.8 




Water Oak Creek 


Bradford 


14.3 


20.7 




Butler Creek 


Un ion 


5.0 


8.0 




Fi ve Mile Creek 


Un ion 


5.0 






Olustee Creek 


Un ion 


26.6 


170.0 




Swifts Creek 


Un ion 


16.8 


58.0 




Cannon Creek 


Col umbia 


4.8 






Clay Hole Creek 


Col umb i a 


6.8 






Rose Creek 


Col umb i a 


6.7 






"Santa Fe River 




70.0 


1 ,440.0 


21.1 AA 


"Suwannee River 




245.0 


9,900.0 



•Rivers border on several counties in the planning basin 



37 



near White Springs Is 1,807 cfs (cubic feet per second), while the 
maximum flow is 28,500 cfs. Approximately thirty miles from the mouth, 
flows average 10,560 cfs, with a maximum of 84,700 cfs.- 

Table 6, summarized from the Suwannee River 303 Basin Plan, identifies 
the principal rivers and tributaries in the Suwannee River basin. 

The St. Johns River basin covers approximately 8,800 square miles of 
peninsular Florida of which about 490 square miles lie in Alachua 
County and perhaps five square miles in Bradford County. Drainage to 
the St. Johns River in Alachua County is through Orange Creek in the 
southeastern tip of the County which connects to the St. Johns River 
via the Oklawaha River, its largest tributary. The average flow from 
southeastern Alachua County into the St. Johns River Basin is approximately 
97 MGD. 

A very small portion of the region lies within the Southwest drainage 
bas in of Flor ida or, more specifically, in the Wacassassa River Basin 
which drains southwestward through Levy County to the Gulf of Mexico 
at Yankeetown. This area includes approximately 65 square miles in 
southeastern Gilchrist County and 20 square miles in southwestern 
Alachua County. The area is not significant from a regional drainage 
scheme except for the drainage relief offered the poorly drained Wacas- 
sassa Flats area of Gilchrist County. 



Lakes 



Although lakes are unimportant to the region as sources of public water 
supply they must be noted as an asset that few states enjoy in more 
abundance than Florida. Values to outdoor recreation, aesthetics, 
wildlife propagation as well as the economic benefits afforded from 
servicing these and other activities insure the continued importance of 
lakes within the region. 

There are 645 lakes in this eleven county region of north central Florida, 
78 of which exceed 100 acres in size. These lakes have a total surface 
area of about 98,821 acres o'' 154 square miles. Table 7 summarizes 
the distribution of lakes by county in the region. 

Covering a land area of 154 square miles out of the 6,877 square miles 
in the region (2.23^^), lakes obviously constitute an important land use 
in the region. Therefore, the need for the conservation of this 
resource is important to both the economy as well as the quality of life. 



■Note: A flow of 100 cfs is aoprox imately equal to a flow of 64.6 
million gallons per day (MGD). 



38 



TABLE 7 
LAKES IN PLANNING DISTRICT 





TOTAL 


NUMBER OF 


LAKE 


• 




NUMBER 


LAKES OVER 


AREA 


LAKE AREA 


COUNTY 


LAKES 


100 ACRES 


(ACRES) 


(SQUARE MILES) 


Al achua 


169 


ko 


52,068 


81.356 


Bradford 


15 


1 


10,055 


15.710 


Co 1 umb i a 


38 


3 


1,405 


2.195 


Dixie 


76 


1 


1,608 


2.512 


G i 1 chri St 


9 


1 


437 


.682 


Hani 1 ton 


27 


1 


658 


1.028 


Lafayette 


66 


k 


1,564 


2.443 


Madi son 


113 


12 


14,487 


22.635 


Suwannee 


33 


2 


982 


1.534 


Tay lor 


96 


k 


13,658 


21.341 


Un ion 


3 


3 


1.899 


2.967 


Total 


645 


78 


98,821 


154.408 



"See Appendix 3 

Source: Florida Gazetteer. 



Table 3 provi des a tabu lat ion of lakes exceeding 100 acres by basin 
segment in the region. It is of note that these tables do not include 
swamps, marshes or other wetlands in the region. As will be seen in 
following sections, these var iabl e water bodies cover vast portions 
of the region and contribute greatly to the overall water-bound natura 
resources of the region. 



GROUNDWATER RESOURCES 



Groundwater is the principal source of water supply for industrial, 
municipal, agricultural and domestic uses in the region. As such it 
is probably the single most important natural resource available to 
the citizens of north central Florida. Although its highest function 
IS as a source of potable water, it also serves to maintain water levels 



39 



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in lakes and streams. Where groundwater discharges at ground surface 
through springs, recreational sites also become possible. 

Groundwater is water within the soil zone in which all pore spaces are 
completely filled with water. An aquifer is defined as a rock formation 
or material in the zone of saturation that is permeable enough to yield 
usable quantities of water to wells or springs. 

Groundwater may occur under water table (unconfined) or artesian 
(confined) conditions. In an unconfined aquifer, the water table is 
the upper surface of the zone of saturation and is free to rise or 
fall. In an artesian or confined aquifer, the water is confined under 
greater than atmospheric pressure by overlying, relatively impermeable 
beds. The water in a well drilled into an artesian aquifer will rise 
above the base of the confining bed. If the water rises above the 
land surface. It will flow naturally and may be termed a flowing 
artesian well. The potent lometri c surface of an artesian aquifer is 
the surface to which water will rise in a tightly cased well that 
penetrates the aquifer. 

Potable water supplies come from two major sources: the Florldan aquifer 
and what may be termed the upper or secondary aquifers. The upper 
aquifers are those waters containing rock or sand formations that lie 
physically above the limestones of the Florldan aquifer. These aquifers 
usually consist of a water table aquifer found close to land surface In 
surficial sand or soil deposits. Other secondary aquifers are often 
found in thin layers of limestone or other porous material lying between 
the water table aquifer and the Florldan aquifer below. 

The water table aquifer is usually comprised of sands of the Pleistocene 
terrace deposits and the sand and limestone layers at the top of the 
Hawthorne Formation. The water table aquifer is absent in a 300 square 
mile area of southwestern Alachua County and extensive areas of the coastal 
zone In Dixie and Taylor Counties where the limestones of the Florldan 
aquifer are very close to the surface. The aquifer is thickest In the 
northern portion of the region where surficial sand beds may reach 100 
feet in thickness. 

The water table aquifer will generally yield less than 50 gpm (gallons 
per minute) of flow which is adequate for some domestic and agricultural 
uses. However, because of local concentrations of iron and tannic acid, 
most users rely upon the lower aquifers for superior quality water 
supplies. This aquifer is primarily recharged by rainfall and to a much 
lesser extent, the movement of water upward from underlying formations. 

Secondary aquifers are often artesian, i.e., the water contained within 
is under pressure and sometimes flows through wells at land surface. 
Although limited in occurrence, they are principally found in the limestone 
or sand layers in the lower part of the Hawthorne Formation which covers 
much of the higher plateau areas of the region. Probably more wells in 
the region tap the secondary artesian aquifers for potable water 



41 



supplies than any other source. In most areas, wells tapping the secondary 
aquifers do provide flows greater than those from the water table aquifer 
(up to 200 gpm) and generally are of better quality. 

The Floridan aquifer consists of a series of hydrolog ical ly connected 
limestone and dolomite formations. Within this region, the aquifer is 
composed of the Lake City Limestone, Avon Park Limestone, the Ocala Group 
of limestones (the Crystal River, Williston and I ng 1 i s Formations), the 
Suwannee Limestone and the permeable sand and limestone beds occasionally 
found at the base of the Hawthorne Formation. 

This aquifer, which extends beneath almost all of Florida and smaller 
parts of three adjoining states, is recognized as one of the most 
productive and extensive groundwater bearing formations in the United 
State and easily transmits and stores more water than any other aquifer 
In Florida. Depending upon the location and thickness of the aquifer 
where penetrated, wells drawing from this source are capable of producing 
prolific supplies of potable water. 

The altitude and configuration of the top of the aquifer are controlled 
by two subsurface geologic structure, the Ocala Uplift and the Peninsular 
Arch. As described In the chapter on geology, both structures are 
structural highs which trend northwestward through the region. The 
Peninsular Arch crests in Alachua, Union, Columbia and Hamilton Counties 
and the Ocala Uplift crests to the southwest of the Peninsular Arch in 
Levy, Gilchrist and Alachua Counties. The aquifer Is at or near the 
surface approximately along the crest of both structures and dips away 
from these crests toward the Atlantic Ocean on the east flank and toward 
the Gulf of Mexico on the west. 

The General Geology map illustrates the areas in the region where lime- 
stones of this aquifer occur at or near the earth's surface. The greatest 
amount of overburden overlying the aquifer appears to be in south- 
eastern Alachua County where the aquifer lies at a depth of about 300 
feet. The freshwater bearing zone of the aquifer ranges from about 500 
to 1,000 feet in thickness. 

It Is not possible at this time to ascertain the quantity of recoverable 
water which may be available from the aquifer in this region. The staff 
of the Suwannee River Water Management District is currently preparing 
both a water use plan and a water budget for the Suwannee River District. 
This information will facilitate making estimates of available water in 
any area of the region. Based upon observations of municipal, industrial 
and agricultural uses along with stream discharges, it is apparent that 
tremendous quantities of water exist beneath the region. Only a fraction 
of the stored water, however, can be claimed for use. Therefore, although 
not inexhaustible, the general magnitude of water volume appears to offer 
few limitations except as might be imposed by a large industry such as 
phosphate mining. In such instances, the Suwannee River Water Management 
District or the St. Johns River Water Management District, charged with 



42 



II 

m 

II 

II 

!l 
II 
I 

i 

i 
I 
1 

I 



regulating consumptive water use within their respective jurisdictions, 
would evaluate groundwater withdrawals before issuing permits. 

The Suwannee River Water Management District has also identified three 
ways in which recharge to the Floridan aquifer is accomplished. As 
reported (Source 25) they include: 

1) By local rainfall in the central and southeast part of the 
District where the aquifer is at or near land surface and the 
confining beds are thin or absent. 

2) By downward movement of water from shallower aquifers and from 
lakes and streams where the confining beds are breached by 
sinkholes. For example, in western Alachua County and southern 
Columbia County, the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers and Olustee 
Creek recharge the aquifer through sinkholes when the river 
levels are above the potent iometri c surface of the Floridan 
aqu i fer . 

3) By downward Infiltration of water from the shallower aquifers 
through the relatively impermeable confining beds where the 
water levels in the shallower aquifers stand higher than the 
potent iometric surface of the Floridan aquifer. This type of 
recharge occurs over wide areas on the higher terraces In the 
northern part of the District. 

The movement of water laterally through the aquifer Is generally In a 
southwesterly direction toward the Gulf and away from areas of recharge. 
Water recharge areas are under a higher relative potential than In 
discharge areas, or those of lower potential. Flow, thereby, occurs 
from one area to another by gravity based upon differences in hydraulic 
head. 

Areas of high potential or recharge In the region include the areas 
enclosed by the sixty-foot potent iometri c contour lines west of the 
Su'wannee River In Madison and Lafayette Counties and the area partially 
enclosed by the eighty-foot potent iometri c contour lines In northeastern 
Alachua and southeastern Bradford Counties. Additional recharge to the 
Floridan aquifer occurs in western Alachua County, eastern Gilchrist 
County and In areas west of the Suv-;annee River where the lack of over- 
burden permits direct recharge by rainfall. The numerous sinkholes and 
sinkhole lakes of the region also permit direct recharge to the aquifer. 
A General Recharge map has been prepared to Illustrate the major areas 
of recharge In the region. These areas are broadly ranked according to 
the relative recharge capacities of each area. 

Because of the importance of this resource the recharge capabilities of 
the region must be considered during the land use planning process to 
insure the compatibility of future land uses with recharge potential. 
From the General Recharge map it may be observed that the highest 
recharge in the region occurs in areas where the potent iometr i c levels 
or pressure heads offer the greatest potential for rapid movement of 
ater from the surface into the aquifer. Perh?:^s more important, due to 



^3 



w 



area size are recharge areas where the limestones of the Floridan 
aquifer are nearest the surface and through sinkholes directly charging 
into the aquifer. Areas with poorest recharge potential correspond to 
the areal extent ot the Hawthorne and similar formations which because 
of their clayey nature almost preclude the flow of water downward to the 
aqui fer . 



S p r i ng s 



Florida's springs represent the natural overflow from the state's 
tremendous groundwater storage and circulation system. Their combined 
flow has been estimated to be about 7 BGD (billion gallons per day) or 
over nine times the amount of water delivered by public water systems in 
1971. Although used to a very limited degree for industry and agriculture, 
their primary use is recreational. Their abundance in North Central 
Florida greatly contributes to the natural beauty of the area. 

A spring is a natural fountain or supply of water upwelling at the earth's 
surface through cracks, fissures or caverns whose flow may range from a 
wet seep to a sizeable stream. Groundwater is discharged from under- 
lying aquifers to springs where the potent iometr ic surface or pressure 
head stands higher than the surface water level. 

Springs may be classified by the average quantity of water they disc^large 
First magnitude springs discharge flows of 100 cfs (64.6 MGD) or greater, 
second magnitude springs have flov/s between 10 and 100 cfs and third 
magnitude springs less than 10 cfs. 

In a recent report, the U.S. Geological Survey reported that there were 
a total of 27 first magnitude springs and spring groups in Florida, seven 
of which are located in this eleven county region. In addition, the 
region also possesses twenty-six second magnitude springs. Table 9 
is provided to illustrate the distribution of springs within the region. 
Average flows in CFS are given for first magnitude springs. 

In addition to those noted, there remain a number of unlisted third 

magnitude springs in north central Florida, Viewed as whole, the region 

possesses an impressive number and diversity of springs which constitute 
one of Its most important natural assets. 



^4^ 



TABLE 9 
FIRST AND SECOND MAGNITUDE SPRINGS OF NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 



COUNTY 


NAME 


FLOW-'-- 
AV. CFS 


Alachua 


Hornsby Spring 
Poe Springs 


163 


Columbia 


Ichnatucknee Springs 
Bel 1 Spri ngs 


358 


Dixie 


Copper Springs 




Gi Ichrist 


Blue Springs 
G Inn ie Spr ing 
Hart Springs 
Rock Bluff Springs 
Sun Springs 




Hami 1 ton 


Morgan's Spring 






White Springs 
Alapaha Rise 


608 




Holton Spring 


288 


Lafayette 


Allen Mill Pond Spring 
Blue Spring 
Fletcher Spring 
Mearson Spring 
Owens Spring 






Ruth Spring 
Troy Spring 
Turt 1 e Spri ng 


166 


Madi son 


Blue Spring 
Suwanacoochee Spring 


123 


Suwannee 


Branford Spring 
Chal res Spr i ng 
El 1 avi 1 1 e Spri ng 






Falmouth Spring 
Little River Springs 
Peacock Springs 


157 




Running Springs 






Suwannee Springs 
Ti 1 ford Springs 





"Flow: Average values given for first magnitude springs 

Source: index to Springs of Florida, Florida Bureau of Geology 
USGS Spring Tabulation, December, 1975. 



^5 




GENERAL RECHARGE 



□ 






GENERALLY LOW RECHARGE 
EXCEPT IN SINK AREAS 
(RELATIVELY DEEP 
OVERBURDEN) 

LOW TO MODERATE 
RECHARGE POTENTIAL 
(RELATIVELY THIN 
OVERBURDEN) 

MODERATE TO HIGH 
RECHARGE POTENTIAL 
(LIMESTONE AND DOLOMITE 
NEAR SURFACE) 

HIGH RECHARGE 
POTENTIAL 
(POTENTIOMETRIC HIGH) 



ll»7» KILOMETERS 

Ptorlh Central Florida Rational Planning Counci 



WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT 
Water Quality Ove rv i ew 



Water in the Floridan aquifer is usually higher In hardness and has low 
values of turbidity and color. Iron concentrations are often high as are 
bicarbonates and sulphate concentrations, although the two latter values 
may vary greatly. Variations In water quality wihtin the aquifer are 
due primarily to natural factors with the concentration of dissolved 
substances generally increasing progressively with depth. The chemical 
quality of the upper aquifers is generally more variable with the most 
objectionable quality characteristics being iron, calcium and magnesium 
hardness and nitrate In some localities. Color Is not usually a problem 
in the upper aquifers; however, it may be significant locally. 

In terms of water quality, groundwater in the region is generally con- 
sidered to be excellent. In only a few areas has groundwater been found 
to be of an objectionable quality because of excessive mineral concentra- 
tion or bacteriological contamination. In broad overview, groundwater 
has been found to be suitable for municipal, agricultural and most In- 
dustrial uses of the region. The only area In the region where the 
water in the upper part of the aquifer has been found to be relatively 
high In mineral concentration is at the mouth of the Aucilla River In 
southern Jefferson and Taylor Counties. In this area, dissolved solids 
concentrations of the water has exceeded 1,000 milligrams per liter, 
chloride has reached 1,000 milligrams per liter and the sulphate con- 
centrations lie between 50 and 100 milligrams per liter. This relatively 
high concentration of minerals indicates the presence of saltwater In- 
trusion to the aquifer at this locality. 

Table 10 is Included in order to summarize the utilization of fresh water 
by the counties in the region. It is noted that virtually all the public 
and industrial supplies of water tap groundwater sources and most of that 
is from the Floridan aquifer. The large quantities of groundwater utilized 
for industrial purposes in Taylor and Hamilton Counties are primarily 
used in the manufacturing of cellulose and for the mining and processing 
of phosphate, respectively. Other major industrial uses include thermo- 
electric generation plants in Suwannee County. 



Water O.uality Fa c to r s 



Although the region remains rich in high quality waters, it is important 
to recognize that the continuing existence of such surface and ground- 
water resources is not necessarily assured with growth and development. 



^9 



TABLE 10 
FRESHWATER WITHDRAWN AND CONSUMED IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 

















POWER 


TOTAL 




MUNICIPAL 


INDUSTRIAL 


AGRICULTURAL 


GENERATION 


ALL USES 




WITH- 


CON- 


WITH- 


CON- 


WITH- 


CON- 


WITH- 


CON- 


WITH- 


CON- 


COUNTY 


DRAWAL 


SUMED 


DRAWAL 


SUMED 


DRAWAL 


SUMED 


DRAWAL 


SUMED 


DRAWAL 


SUMED 


Alachua 


22.3 


12.2 


1.4 


.3 


3.4 


2.5 


1.0 


.8 


28.1 


15.8 


Bradford 


.7 




k 


].k 


- 


.14 


.1 


.2 


.2 


2.44 


.7 


Clay 


1.6 




5 


1.5 


.2 


4.1 


3.0 


- 


- 


7.2 


3.7 


Col umbia 


1.7 




k 


- 


- 


.2 


.2 


- 


- 


1.9 


.6 


Dixie 


.k 




1 


.9 


.3 


.09 


.1 


- 


- 


1.39 


.5 


Gi Ichrist 


. 1 




1 


- 


- 


.2 


.1 


- 


- 


.3 


.2 


Hami 1 ton 


.5 




2 


I8.it 


6.1 


.7 


.5 


- 


- 


19.6 


6.8 


Lafayette 


. 1 




1 


- 


- 


1.1 


.9 


- 


- 


1.2 


1.0 


Mad i son 


.6 




. 1 


- 


- 


1.7 


1.3 


- 


- 


2.3 


1.4 


Suwannee 


.6 




2 


7.1 


.3 


4.1 


3.0 


173 


1.5 


184.8 


5.0 


Ta y 1 o r 


1.2 




3 


53.7 


5.4 


.1 


. 1 


- 




55.0 


5.3 


Un ion 


.1 




. 1 


.6 


•3 


.1 1 


. 1 


- 


- 


.81 


.5 


TOTALS 


29.9 


U.7 


35.0 


12.9 


16.34 


11.4 


174.2 


2.5 


305.98 


42.0 



Source: Adapted from Water Resource Information Needs, Information 
Circular No. 1, Suwannee River Water Management District, 
1975 



50 



im^S 



The application of water quality and management programs is, therefore, 
essentia] if the region's potential is to be achieved. 

With respect to assessing the quality status of waters within the region 
it has been recognized that very little documented information is 
available concerning the region's existing and potential water quality 
problems. The 303(e) Basin Plans prepared by Florida's Department of 
Environmental Regulation appear to summarize the most up-to-date and complete 
information available. This and other available information suggests 
that there does exist a high potential for water pollution in large 
areas of the region and that the existing and/or potential problems are 
complicated by the type and variety of natural environments present. 

Both the ground and surface waters of the region presently receive waste 
products from a variety of sources including domestic waste from municipal 
and private dischargers, industrial wastes and non-point sources. The 
Florida Department of Environmental Regulation has analyzed available 
water quality data for major lakes and streams of the region and documented 
this data in their St. Johns River, Suwannee River, and Aucilla-St. 
Marks 303(e) River Basin Plans, according to requirements outlined by 
the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (PL 92-500). 

Illustrated by the following Basin Segment-water Quality Map are those 
segments in the northwest and southeast portions of the region designated 
as Water Quality Limited, or those areas which, on the application of 
the best practical treatment for Industrial point sources and secondary 
treatment for municipal point sources, will not achieve the established 
water quality goals. All other segments in the region have been designated 
in the 303(e) basin plans as Effluent Limited, or those segments in which, 
upon the levels of treatment mentioned above are expected to meet water 
qua 1 i ty goa 1 s . 

Problems In Water Quality Limited segments as indicated by Table 11, 
Stream Classification in Water Quality Limited Segments, are due to 
both point and non-point sources. Water bodies In the southeastern portion 
of the region having water quality problems include New River, Santa 
Fe River, Alligator Creek, Newmans Lake, Orange Lake and many others. 
Many of these have been noted in the past as having high scenic and 
recreational values. in the northwest portion of the region. Water 
Quality Limited segments Include problems associated with the Aucilla 
River and the Fenhollov/ay River; the former highly scenic with primarily 
non-point problems, the latter receiving large amount of industrial wastes 
which ultimately flow Into the Gulf of Mexico. 

The north central portions of the region, segments 21.1AA and 21.2BA, 
have been designated Effluent Limited. This area, drained entirely by 
the Suwannee Ri ver and Its tributaries, has been noted by the District- 
Conservation I ;ts of the Soil Conservation Service as having potential 
for non-point sources of Dollution. The potential for Impacts to ground- 
water recharge In this area and subsequent downstream impacts throughout 
the Suwannee River Basin have wide implications with respect to water 
qua 1 I ty and land use. 



51 



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52 



Coastal areas in segments 22.5BA and 2] .2fkf\, likewise, are reported to 
have non-point sources of pollution though none have yet been specifically 
identified or quantified. In this area having minimal overburden above 
the aquifer, there is a close interaction between ground and surface 
waters, a condition common throughout much of the region. In addition, 
relatively undeveloped and ecologically valuable coastal marshes and 
attendant Class II waters are present, all of which would suggest and 
emphasize the need for water quality management and planning. 

The following discussion expands upon point and non-point pollution 
problems within the region. 



Point Sources 



The Florida Department of Pollution Control classified the bulk of the 
region's surface waters as Class III (recreat iona 1 -propagat ion and manage- 
ment of fish and wildlife) and Class II (shellfish harvesting) for coastal 
waters. The only exception is the Fenholloway River, which is noted as 
Class V (navigation, utility and industrial uses). Water quality standards 
for each class of water are identified in Chapter 17-3 of the Rules of the 
Department of Air and Water Pollution Control. In addition. Federal 
regulations, i.e. PL 92-500, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act 
Amendments of 1972, also state as their goal swimmable and fishable waters 
throughout the nation by 1985 and require through more specific state 
compiled 303(e) plans more specific goals designed to achieve these 
standards . 

Stream segments which are in violation of water quality standards and 
vjh i ch would not meet water quality standards with the application of 
best practical treatment to point sources are classified as Water Quality 
Limited. Table 11 summarizes the Water Quality Limited segments within 
the north central Florida region and notes the probable causes of 
deteriorated stream quality as suggested by the 303(e) Basin Plans. 

In order to document the number and nature of point discharges within the 
region, Tables 12 and 13 are also provided. It is apparent that only 
in segments 20.2BA, 21.3AA, and 21.IAA are point source discharges 
notably significant. There are 35 point source discharges of domestic 
waste within the region. These sources contribute approximately 13 MGD 
of effluent to surface waters and are by volume concentrated in segments 
20.2BA, 22.5 AA, and 2I.3AA. It is of note that several domestic point 
sources discharge directly into groundwaters and others, notable In and 
around Alachua County, ultimately flow through surface streams into 
groundwater bearing formations through solution features. 

industrial point source dischargers are less notable in numbers but 
perhaps more significant in terms of waste volumes produced. Over 70 MGD 



55 



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56 



TABLE 13 
SUMMARY CHART OF MAJOR POINT SOURCE DISCHARGERS 



SEGMENT 


NAME 


LOCATION 


WASTE 


VOLUME (MGD) 
(AVERAGE) 


20.2 BA 


General Electric 
Battery Plant 

Copeland Sausage 

Reg lonal Ut il I ties 
Board (3) 

Un i vers i ty of 
Florida 

Sunland Training 
Center 


Alachua 
Alachua 

Ga inesvi 1 le 

Ga i nesvi 1 1 e 

Ga inesvi lie 


Alkal ine 

Meat Processing 

Domes t ic 

Domes t ic 

Dome St ic 


0.5 
0.879 

7.8 

2.4 

0.3 


21.1 AA 


Owens- 1 1 1 i noi s 

City of Jasper 

Occidental 
ChemI ca 1 


Clyattvi 1 le, 
Georg ia 

Jasper 

Wh i te Spr I ngs 


Pulp & Paper 
Process i ng 

Domes t ic 

Phosphate 
Process ing 


11.7 
0.311 


21 .2 BA 


City of Live Oak 
Fla. Power Corp. 
Gold Kist Poultry 


Live Oak 
Live Oak 
EI lavi 1 le 


Domes t ic 

Coo 1 I ng water 

Process I ng 


0.4 

175.6 

0.3 


21.3 AA 


E. 1 . Dupont 

Fla. State Prison 

CI ty of Lake CI ty 

C i ty of Lake 
Butler 

Ci ty of Starke 


Starke 
Ra i ford 
Lake City 

Lake Butler 
Starke 


Heavy mineral 
f1 1 n I ng 
Domes t I c 

Domest I c 

Domes t i c 
Domes 1 1 c 


3.4 

1.27 
2.0 

0.22 
0.8 


22.5 AA 


CI ty of Perry 
Buckeye Cel 1 ulose 
Southern DolomI te 


Perry 
Foley 
Perry 


Domest I c 

Pulp Processing 

Groundwater and 
Suspended Fines 


1.0 

55.8 
15.0 



Source: Suwannee River, St. Johns River and Aucllla-St. Marks 303 

(e) Basin Plans prepared by the Departnent of Environmental 
Regu 1 at ion. 



57 



of wood pulp processing and dolomite mining wastes flow into the Fenholloway 
River and another 12 MGD from a paper processing source flows into the 
Suwannee River via the Wi thiacoochee River in Hamilton and Madison 
Counties. Both contribute to water quality problems in their respective 
receiving waters. Less significant is an additional 176 MGD of effluent 
flowing into the Suwannee River from an electrical power generation 
faci 1 i ty . 

Table 13 presents a summary of the major point source dischargers in 
the region and notes their general location, waste type and volume. 
However, this information may not present a factual picture of actual 
point source problem areas. It must be recognized that even relatively 
small point source dischargers can significantly aggravate a pollution 
problem. Consequently, in the absence of a regional water quality 
assessment, it is only possible to represent major point sources which 
may or may not necessarily include all significant point sources. 



Non-Point Sources 



Very limited information is available on non-point sources of pollution 
for areas within north central Florida except for those identified in 
the Department of Environmental Regulation 303(e) Basin Plans. Additional 
information has been compiled by the District Conservationists of the 
Soil Conservation Service for each county in Florida. This information 
consists of a tabulation of land uses that could contribute to potential 
non-point sources of pollution in each county. Although compiled on a 
county by county basis and not by basin segment, the Information presents 
data from which it is possible to assess potential or undocumented non- 
point problems within the region. County maps have also been prepared by 
District Conservationists which identify potential sources of non-point 
pol 1 ut ion. 



Table ]k suggests that potential non-point pollution from urban runoff 
may be most significant in Alachua and Suwannee Counties which have the 
largest urban concentrations. The potential for the majority of non- 
point problems, as suggested by Table l4, appears perhaps greatest from 
agriculture and forest land uses. The use of fertilizers, pesticides and 
other supplementary material as well as the often large scale land 
alterations associated with these activities occupy an extensive area in 
the region. This suggests that significant non-point pollution sources 
may exist. Documentation of such sources is difficult owing not only 
to the rural nature of the region but also to the relative absence of 
surface drainage systems in large areas of karst topography which permits 
the rapid movement of surface waters into groundwater systems. In 
summary, in areas such as north central Florida, typified by Karst 
topography and dotted by solution features, surface and groundwater 
interactions are an exceptionally important consideration in assessing 



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59 



water quality. Any solution feature that receives runoff becomes a 
potential source of pollution and, as most surface water bodies within the 
region terminate or interact with solution features, the potential for 
deterioration of groundwater supplies is almost always present. 

Potable water supplies in north central Florida drav/ almost exclusively 
upon groundwater resources. Anticipated growth and development in the 
region, and in particular, areas of aquifer recharge having minimal 
overburden, require a continually high water quality from the Floridan 
and upper aquifers. Complete reliance on point source control cannot, 
therefore, be expected to fully achieve the maintenance or enhancement 
of desirable water quality in the region. It is, therefore, in the 
best Interest of present and future citizens of the region for the North 
Central Florida Regional Planning Council to pursue funding for programs 
such as 208 Areawide Waste V/ater Management Planning program provided 
for in PL 92-500, to insure local preparation of plans vitally important 
to v;ater supplies of the region. 



Flood Plains 



Flood plains, although perhaps not easily identifiable as natural re- 
sources, are an Important if not Indivisible part of our natural surface 
water systems. They often correspond to a broad belt surrounding the 
existing stream channels or Isolated depressions and are shaped in 
part by topography, storm water volume, vegetation and other natural 
and manmade forces. 

Flood plains commonly include all those areas. Including depressions 
that are inundated following a storm whose severity Is often judged 
by the water levels which could be expected following a storm of a 
certain stated rainfall intensity. They are usually defined as that 
area which is inundated as a result of a rainfall whose magnitude and 
duration occurs on the average only once in each one hundred years. For 
comparison, stream channels are often defined by that area which is 
inundated by a storm which occurs on the average once in every ten year 
per iod. 

Flood plains provide valuable services If left in a natural state. They 
not only provide flood ways to remove storm waters, but when not 
satisfying this prime function, they may also provide useful open space 
areas near urban centers, in addition, wildlife may find refuge in 
vegetation often naturally abundant near well watered areas, groundwater 
recharge occurs through soils during high water levels, and recreation Is 
often enhanced in naturally viable settings. 



60 



Due to the relative Infrequency of major storms and the benefits afforded 
by a gently sloping topography, development in and around flood plains 
often appears highly feasible. However, the potential for human and 
economic loss is usually increased. Areas with a naturally high flood 
potential cannot tolerate continued development which in effect would 
retard the ability of the flood plain to absorb water and restrict the 
flow of water from the land. Flood volume and velocity -are increased 
downstream by development within flood plains causing downstream flood 
hazards to increase. The construction of storm sewers, canals and other 
stream channel improvements may greatly alleviate potential flooding 
problems in urban areas. However, as evidenced by recent drainage 
studies for the Gainesville Urban Area, downstream flooding problems 
may be intensified by increasing the amount and rate of flood waters 
flowing into stream channels. Therefore, proper management of flood 
plain areas is particularly important in urbanizing areas to insure 
against serious property damage and loss of life. 

It has been reported that the most severe floods in the Suwannee River 
Basin are associated with storms or sequences of storms which produce 
widespread rainfall over a period of several days. Although flooding may 
occur in any season, the maximum annual flood stages most frequently 
occur during the period from February to April as a result of frontal 
type rainfall events. Major storms may also occur during the summer and 
fall months associated with tropical disturbances such as hurricanes. 
The coastal area of Dixie and Taylor counties is notably susceptible to 
tidal flooding as a result of such storms. 

The largest storm of record for the Suwannee River Basin occurred in 
March and April, 19^8. A series of storms in the basin coupled with high 
groundwater cond i t ions served to maximize runoff to the river. During 
peak stages of the resulting flood, the Suwannee flowed out of its banks 
from the Gulf north beyond the Florida state line. The flooded area 
covered almost 500 square miles along the river and its tributaries 
and damaged many homes and commercial establishments within the flood 
plain. More recently, another flood occurred In April, 1973, which 
produced flood stages as high or higher than the 19^8 flood in the upper 
reaches of the Suwannee. Stages on the lower reaches were about three 
feet lower than In 19^8. There was an estimated eight million dollars 
In damages to homes, businesses and roads from this more recent storm. 

Tidal flooding also has the potential of doing extensive damage, 
particularly along coastal areas In the region. Most of this type of 
flooding Is the result of hurricanes near the coast in such a direction 
as to cause on-shore winds for several hours. The Corps of Engineers 
has projected tides as high as fourteen feet above mean sea level for a 
100-year frequency storm for coastal areas in Dixie and Taylor counties. 
Certainly flood plain planning Is not to be neglected in terms of the 
extent of flooding that may occur during a major storm event. 

An estimate of the extent of flood prone areas within the Suwannee River 
Water Management District Is furnished in Volume I of the Northeast 
Gulf River Basin Study for Florida, Alabama and Georgia prepared by the 



61 



U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with state agencies. Of 
the ^,^03,398 acres in the basin, approximately kS.h% or 2,000,000 acres 
lie within flood prone areas. It is noteworthy that of this amount 
10,142 acres or 0.5% consist of urban and built up areas. 

To help define such areas, generalized flood plain maps have been prepared 
by the U.S. Geological Survey on the 7"l/2 minute topographic quadrangle 
maps for all counties of the region. In addition, the Federal Flood 
Insurance Administration of the Department of Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment has prepared Flood Hazard Boundary Maps for many communities within 
the region. This series is being continually updated as new areas elect 
to participate in the Federal Flood Insurance Program which offers low 
cost flood insurance to those communities which make at least modest 
efforts toward establishing flood plain and development regulations. 

A general flood prone area map has been prepared and is included In this 
report. This map has been compiled from the over 200 U.S. GS 7~l/2 
minute flood prone area maps of the Region. It shows only those areas 
Identified as lying completely within the boundaries of the statistical 
100-year flood. It is readily apparent that such areas possess at the 
least moderate limitations to development. In addition to these flood 
prone areas Idenfitied, the region also contains lands having numerous 
indistinct flood prone and dry areas where it was estimated that up to 
one half of the land area under consideration could be defined as flood 
prone. These areas are not defined on the general flood prone area map 
but could be important to development In specific areas. Notable occur- 
rances of such areas may be seen in the coastal areas of Dixie and Taylor 
Counties, the swamp areas of northern Columbia and eastern Hamilton Counties, 
and the low lying areas of central Bradford County. 



We t 1 and s 



Wetlands may be Identified as those areas where the water table Is at, 
near, or above the land surface for a significant part of most years. 
They may be broadly classified as either marine or non-marine environ- 
ments and Include springs, rivers, flood plains, swamps, meadows, ponds, 
lakes, salt marshes, estuarlnes, bays, coral reefs, submarine meadows, 
and a variety of other environments. 

All to often In past years, wetlands, typifed by swamps and coastal 
marshes of either fresh or salt water, were regarded as worthless land 
suitable only for land filling or if properly channelized and drained, 
for agricultural uses. In recent years, the natural values of these 
wetlands have been investigated by a number of researchers and found to 
be tremendously Important to the maintenance of natural systems. 

One product of the 1972 Florida Wildlife Federation Legislative Conference 



62 







/1076 KILOMETERS 

Morlh Central Florida Rcgwrul Planning Council 



AREAS SUBJECT TO 
100 YEAR FLOOD 



FLOOD HAZARD AREAS 



was a statement recognizing the value and importance of the state's 
wetlands. Wetlands were recognized as important for: 

1) The protection of aquatically dependent vegetation and wildlife; 

2) The propagation of food supplies. 

3) The maintenance of protective barriers aga i nst .floods , hurri- 
canes, and other storms and for the prevention of erosion of 
shorelines and shores; 

k) The assimilation of pollutants; 

5) The prevention of salt water intrusion in coastal areas; 

6) Their value of surface water storage and recharge areas; 

7) The moderation of local climate; 

8) Their potential to provide present and future citizens with an 
acceptable quality of life including historic and recreational 
values and aesthetic enjoyment. 

In addition, the conference concluded that the protection and proper 
management of wetlands is necessary to ensure the economic well being 
of the state and the health, safety and welfare of its citizens. 

Many valuable wetland areas have been identified in north central Florida. 
Examples include Gumroot Swamp in Alachua County, Santa Fe Headwater 
Swamp in Bradford County, Hixtown Swamp in Madison County, California 
Swamp in Dixie County and Tide Swamp in Taylor County. Like many other 
wetlands, these serve as valuable natural filters for urban runoff, 
reservoirs of abundant vegetation and wildlife and serve many valuable 
natural functions. The environmental quality analysis for the coastal 
zone of Dixie and Taylor County prepared by the Council also identified 
the extensive coastal marshes and estuary areas along the Gulf Coast of 
Dixie and Taylor Counties also as being of considerable natural signifi- 
cance . 

In order to incorporate such areas into the planning process, wetland 
systems within the region have been identified by a General Wetlands 
Map. The information contained on this map is generalized because of 
data limitations and the broad scale at which the map v^vas prepared. While 
specific systems are named in the environmental Inventory section of this 
report, it is noted that the basic information was drawn from the 1:125,000 
scale maps of land use prepared on behalf of the Di v i s ion of State Planning 
by NASA personnel utilizing satellite imagery techniques. Land use maps 
for the region were prepared or modified for in-house use utilizing 
aerial photographs of the region for comparison. Wetland areas were 
identified and transferred to a regional map at a scale of 1:250,000 
to achieve a common basis for comparison with other maps of natural 
systems . 

Areas not identified as wetlands on the map may be assumed to be generally 
dry land. Because of the nature of the region with its many small swamp 
areas it is not possible to indicate every discreet wetland parcel. 
Therefore, the map must be considered general in nature. 



65 




/107I KILOMETERS 

North Central Fkxida RcgwnsI Planning Council 



WETLANDS 



WETLANDS 



Based upon an evaluation of wetland importance and potential it has 
become apparent that land use planning and subsequent development should 
consider such concepts of wetland ecology and resources as a viable 
element in the planning process. Local governments may find it desirable 
to communicate with the Florida Freshwater Fish and Game Commission as 
well as other environment related agencies in order to provide themselves 
with the ability to fully access each wetland system with respect to 
its natural attributes and importance to other related systems. 



Water Resource Projects 



The Soil Conservation Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and 
private power companies have ongoing water resource projects throughout 
the state, a number of which exist within this planning region. Some 
of these projects are complete while others are in various stages of 
planning and construction. 

Since 189^, the major part of the Corps of Engineers' activities has 
been with navigation and harbor projects . The USDA, Soil Conservation 
Service, is actively participating in water resource projects through 
the PL 566 Small Watershed Program. Twenty-nine projects of this type 
have been applied for in Florida. In addition, Resource Conservation, 
and Development (RC&D) projects are also the work of the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. Such projects are usually 
smaller than PL 566 projects and attempt to solve more localized problems. 

Table 15 summarizes the name, responsible agency and location of these 
projects and is presented to describe the number and type of water 
related project activities occurring in the region. 



69 



TABLE 15 
WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROJECTS 





PROJECT NAME 


COUNTY 


STATUS 


SCS PL 566 


Cal i forn la Lake 


Dixie 


Plan approved 
for construction 




San Pedro Bay 


Taylor 


Active approved 
appl icat ion 




Cherry Lake 


Madi son 


Active approved 
appl icat ion 




Big All igator Lake - 


Columbia 


1 nact ive 




Rose Creek 








Water Oak Creek 


Bradford 


Project not active 



Source: NE Gulf River Basin Study 



SCS RC & D 


Mayo - Cal f Creek 




Lafayette 


Ongoi ng 




Pickett Lake 




Lafayette 


Ongoi ng 




Live Oak 




Suwannee 


Ongoi ng 




Greenville Water Mgt. 


Proj. 


Mad I son 


Ongoi ng 




Desoto Lake 




Col umbia 


Ongoi ng 



Source: NE Gulf River Basin Study 



Corps of Eng. 


Gulf Intercoastal Water- 


Dixie & 


Active 




way - St. Marks to 


Taylor 






Tampa Bay 








Suwannee R. Navigation Proj. 




25% completed 




Suwannee Sound to 








Ellaville 








Suwannee R. Nav. Study 


Dixie & 
Levy 


Act ive 




Steinhatchee River Channel 


Taylor - 


Cont i nuous 




Mai ntenance 








Hogtown Creek (Clear Lake) 


Alachua 


Inact ive 




Levee Project 







Source: 303(e) Basin Plans 



70 



ROCK S MINERAL RESOURCES 



I NTRODUCTI ON 



The rock and mineral resources of Florida are singular in the respect 
that they are essentially non-renewable resources. That is, reserves of 
these non-metallic materials, commonly found in the State such as: 
phosphates, oil and gas do not normally accumulate in nature over short 
intervals of time. Natural recovery of deposits must take place through 
geologic time and are not to be measured within a meaningful time frame 
such as human life spans. 

Because of the tremendous demands placed upon our mineral resources by 
our complex agricultural and industrial industrv, many of our proven 
mineral reserves can last no longer than a few decades. It is painfully 
obvious that once high grade deposits are depleted, ever increasing amounts 
of time and energy will be required to obtain and refine lower grade 
reserves. The high quality phosphate resources of Florida are an excellent 
examp le of this. 

Impetus must be applied to the conservation of resources because of their 
non-renewable nature emphasizing the need to prevent waste, useless dis- 
sipation and needless loss of natural materials especially where known 
reserves are rapidly diminishing. It is recognized that future needs will 
have to be met through utilization and recovery of "waste" materials, and 
replacement by alternate resources where available and both combined with 
continual research into resource utilization. 

Along with these considerations, an environmental awareness of the effects 
of extractions of such resources from the earth demands attention. 
Proper restoration of worked out areas is important to proper land 
utilization, resource planning and environmental quality. 

Therefore, inasmuch as our economy depends on a balanced input from all 
resources, it is apparent that potential limitations imposed by deterior- 
ating reserves of high quality, non- renev;ab 1 e resources are a key consi- 
deration In planning for the future. Understanding this central role with 
respect to the location and values of such resources existing in the 
region Is an Important element in the comprehensive planning program. 

Certain rock and nineral deposits In north central Florida are noteworthy 
and significant as natural resources. The objective of this section Is to 



71 



describe their occurrence, potential for economic utilization and some 
related development considerations. The deposits to be considered include: 
limestone and dolomite, phosphate, clay, sand, gypsum, oil and natural 
gas. 



CLAY DEPOSITS 



Clay is one of the common products of the decomposition of rocks. It is 
usually made up of a number of different minerals in varying proportions 
and is often defined as a very fine grain, earthy material which becomes 
plastic (workable) when wet. More specifically, clays are hydrous alum- 
inum silicates mixed with varying proportions of impurities. These 
silicates occur in many mineral forms each of which has distinctive 
properties that give rise to the suitability of the different clays to 
particular industrial uses. 

The State of Florida has been an active clay producer for many years. 
Until 1923, Florida produced more Fuller's earth type clay than any 
other state. By 1922, as many as twenty-three different companies were 
operating in Florida. Since that time, the number of working clay 
operations has decreased and in 1965, there were only two operating brick 
plants. However, rapid increases In the population of Florida In the 
past decade has stimulated the building industry tremendously creating 
a market for additional materials. At the present time, there are eight 
companies In the State producing clay for a variety of products. None 
of these, however, are located in this eleven county region. 

Primary clay varieties Include: kaolin or China clay, fire clay, bento- 
nite. Fuller's earth and miscellaneous or common clay. The majority of 
all clay that is produced is utilized in the manufacture of ceramic 
products. Ball clays and fire clays are used by the ceramic Industry. 
Bentonite and Fuller's earth are used in processing petroleum products, 
foundry facings, drilling muds, Insecticide bases and other non-ceramic 
purposes. The miscellaneous clays include those materials generally 
referred to as common clays and are used to manufacture heavy clay pro- 
ducts such as brick, tile and portland cement. 

There are three basic types of clay which are or have been important to 
Florida, Fuller's earth, kaolin and the common clays. Fuller's earth 
is a type of clay with little plasticity. Its properties as a natural 
active beaching agent were utilized during the middle ages for removing 
grease and fat from woolen cloth, and later aided In refining mineral and 
vegetable oils. Presently, It Is used to de-ink newsprint and as an 
additive to concrete, soaps. Insecticides, cosmetics, adhesives, ceramic 
glazes and many other products. Fuller's earth Is an inexact term applied 
to clays that are by nature highly absorptive. Montmor I 1 Ion i te is the 
dominant clay mineral constituent. 



72 



In recent years, all the Florida production has come from mines located in 
Gadsden County, but Fuller's earth was formerly mined in Marion and Manatee 
counties with isolated but not economically valuable deposits also reported 
from Alachua County. 

Kaolin is another clay product important to Florida. Kaolin is a high 
grade clay often called China clay. It has many uses in addition to the 
manufacturing of China clay. Its largest use is a filler in paper, but 
it is also used in the rubber industry and in the manufacture of re- 
fractories. 

Kaolin, or China clay, is admixture of clays that has the mineral kaolinite 
as an important part of its composition. Commercial deposits have been 
mined in Putnam and Lake County where large deposits reportedly occur. 
In addition, Kaolin has been found in Suwannee, Lafayette and Alachua 
Counties, although not in commercial quantities. 

Perhaps of more importance of Florida are the clays utilized for common 
brick manufacture. These clays are usually of an inpure, often sandy 
composition, they have a medium degree of plasticity and varying strength, 
color and other properties. These clays are widely distributed in Florida 
and appear to be the most common variety found in the region. 

These common, or structural clays, are utilized in building bricks, 
sewer pipes, roofing tile, lightweight aggregate, and portland cement. 
Although mined in the past and utilized in the manufacture of common brick, 
the use of such clays had declined due to the sandy nature of clay 
deposits v/hich along with other impurities hindered their usefulness and 
economic value. Common clays in particular have been found to occur 
ttiroughout most of the region associated with natural accumulations in the 
Hawthorne Formation as well as with residual clay deposits attributed 
to the decomposition of underlying limestones of the Ocala Group. 

In general, although Florida's Fullers' earth production was second in 
the nation in 1972, none of this material was produced in north central 
Florida. However, because of the extent of the various clay deposits in 
the region, there may be future potential for clay production contingent 
upon further exploration and refinement of methods to wash inpurities 
from clays as they are removed from the earth. 



L I MESTONE AMD DOLOMI TE 



Limestone (calcium carbonate), including also in a broad sense dolomite 

(magnesium calcium carbonate), are the most widely used of all rock mined 

in Florida. Almost the entire production of rock or stone in Florida is 
some variety of limestone. 



73 



Blocks or slabs cut from natural stone suitable for utilization in build- 
ings or for construction are called dimensional stone. Difficulties 
associated v;ith the variable composition of limestone, production methods 
and competition with newer construction materials such as architectural 
concrete, glass and aluminum have almost eliminated production of such 
materials in Florida. 

By far the greatest use of these resources is in the form of crushed or 
broken stone. The use to which such products are put Include: concrete, 
road metal, riprap, railroad ballast, agricultural limestone (including 
dolomite), Portland cement, lime, fuel oil additives and other mis- 
cellaneous uses. The major limiting factor to limestone mining, in 
addition to composition and depth to the rock body, is the availability 
of inexpensive transportation. Therefore, the product is usually mined 
near adequate roads or railway transportation in order to be economically 
compet i t i ve. 

In this region of north central Florida, the Ocala Group of limestones, 
in particular, the Crystal River and Williston Formations as well as 
the Suwannee Limestone, lend themselves to mining largely because of 
their location at or near land surface over large areas of the region. 
In general, the limestones of the Oca la Group that are quarried In the 
region and around the central and northern portion of the State have a 
uniform texture that allow ready crushing and pulverizing. They are 
generally free from grit and in some areas the rock approaches the purity 
of lOO:^ calcium carbonate. Dolomites and dolomitic limestone portions 
of the formations in the Ocala Group as well as the Suwannee Limestone 
occur near the surface in Taylor and Dixie Counties. The hardness of 
crushed dolomite makes It especially desirable for roadstone and other 
uses where such hardness is desirable. In addition. Its chemical com- 
position makes It especially useful for agricultural purposes. 

According to Information Circular Number 88 (1972) of the Florida Bureau 
of Geology, this region has three counties which produce crushed lime- 
stone: Alachua, Suwannee and Taylor. In that year, production was reported 
from seventy-five mines in sixteen Florida counties. At that time, 
Alachua County reported four quarries supplying crushed limestone and 
dolomite. Production in 1971 totaled 2,035,040 short tons for a value of 
$1,596,000 and in 1972, production totaled 2,166,000 short tons for a 
value of $1,7^1,000. This represents only about k.3% of the State's total 
production by volume in 1972. Similar Information for Suwannee and 
Taylor Counties was withheld from publication to avoid disclosing 
individual company confidential data. 

A better perspective of the potential for limestone production in this 
eleven county region can be obtained from Information Circular Number 
66 (1968) of the Florida Bureau of Geology. This publication reports 
seventeen active quarries in five counties of the region: Alachua (7), 
Suwannee (^) , Taylor (3), Lafayette (2), and Columbia (I). Unfortunately, 
statistics on production were not included in that publication. From 
the map of General Geology, it may be observed that other counties In this 



74 



region notably Dixie, Madison and Gilchrist also have the potential for 
limestone production based upon an abundance of near surface exposures. 
Therefore, because of the large volume of naturally available limestone, 
the region will probably continue to produce crushed limestone and dolo- 
mite for many years. 

As with abandoned phosphate mines, limestone quarries are not easily 
reclaimed and become both a nuisance and liability to owners. Re- 
clamation is often possible to a limited extent by such measures as 
filling with non-putresc i ble waste, such as construction debris, or 
conversion of sites into managed recreational areas. Viewed as resources 
or liabilities, they represent a land use which requires attention during 
the land use planning process. 



PHOSPHATE RESOURCES 



The principal use of phosphate rock is in the production of superphos- 
phate for use as a fertilizer. In nature, phosphorus is taken up by 
vegetation and returned to the soil upon a plants subsequent death and 
decay. The quality of the soil :s thereby maintained. During crop 
cultivation, phosphorus is removed with each harvest and, if the pro- 
ductivity of the soil is to be maintained, the phosphorus must be replaced 
in the form of super-phosphate or alternate soil supplement containing 
other soluble phosphate. In fertilizers, such as superphosphate, which 
is made by treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid, the phosphorus 
is available to plants in a much more soluble form than In untreated 
phosphate rock which was frequently utilized in earlier soil benefaction 
efforts. Therefore, the value to modern agriculture of this artificial 
enrichment cannot be underestimated. 

Phosphate deposits of northern Florida consists primarily of marine 
phosphatic sedimentary rocks made up of clays, sand, dolomite and a 
variety of alterations of this material formed by weathering processes. 
Phosphate rock is neither constant in composition nor occurrence and 
consists of a variable mixture of calcium phosphates and other minerals. 
The phosphate-bearing rocks and minerals of Florida have been classified 
into four very general categories: land pebble, river pebble, hard rock 
and soft rock. Of these, only the land pebble, or grandular phosphate 
is being mined In Florida. River pebble, or stream placer deposits, are 
relatively unimportant in this area. The "soft rock" deposits (clayey 
sands with phosphate particles) are normally associated with hard rock 
deposits and are not differentiated in this discussion. Due to dif- 
ferences in occurrences, the two categories, hard rock phosphates and 
pebble phosphates, are considered individually. 



75 



Hard Rock Phosphate Deposits 



Hard rock phosphate was apparently first mined in Florida and utilized on 
a local scale in Hawthorne in I883, after it was discovered that sandstone 
being quarried there contained considerable amounts of phosphate. In 
1888, phosphate was discovered in what is now part of the hard rock 
phosphate district near Dunnellon in Marion County. Following the 
discovery of these extensive hard rock phosphate deposits in Marion 
County, commercial mining developed rapidly until 1907, when the production 
of hard rock phosphate in north central Florida reached a peak. At that 
time, there were forty-five companies producing hard rock phosphate in 
central and northern Florida including twenty-two in Alachua County, 
three in Columbia County and one in Suwannee. After a brief revival 
following World War I, production declined until 1977, when all hard rock 
phosphate production in Florida ceased. 

The hard rock phosphate deposits of Florida are roughly confined to a 
north to south trending linear belt along the west of the peninsula. 
This concentration is largely controlled by the Ocala Uplift. The 
Ocala Uplift is an elongated anticlinal fold or arch stretching some two 
hundred miles long and seventy miles wide. The axis lies a few miles 
west of Alachua County. The hard rock phosphate concentration occurs 
primarily on the central portion of this Uplift in an area one hundred 
miles long and thirty miles wide covering the total area of some 15,000 
square miles. These hard rock deposits are found In fifteen counties 
including Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Levy and Suwannee in this 
reg i on . 

The deposits are highly irregular in shape and size and range from several 
feet to over one hundred feet in thickness. In the Newberry area of 
western Alachua County, where it was once mined, the maximum thickness 
is about fifty feet and the average less than thirty feet. It is reported 
that gray, phosphatic, sandy clay, as much as eighty feet thick, covers 
most hard rock deposits. 

The geology of the hard rock deposits is very complex. These deposits 
have been described as Irregular mixtures of quartz, sand, chert, clay 
minerals and carbonate f lourapat i te, principally in the form of collophane 
{Cac^F {POl^) ^) , an amphorous phosphate-rich mineral. In general, these 
deposits correspond in areal extent with outcropping of the Alachua 
Formation. Similarly, a degree of coincidence with the physiographic 
feature known as the Brooksville Ridge is also apparent from topographic 
studies. The Rock and Mineral Resource map illustrates the approximate 
extent of hard rock deposits In the subsurface of the region. 

In the 1890's and early 1900's, hard rock phosphate production flourished 
because, with naturally occurring high phosphate percentages, It was 
Ideal for export as washed and screened rock. As benefaction techniques 
were Improved for the large deposits of land pebble phosphate, hard rock 



76 



production declined. Neither the production of hard rock nor soft rock 
phosphates since 19^2, has contributed a significant amount to the 
phosphate Industry. Under changed economic conditions, the hard rock 
phosphate reserves of the state may again be mined. Renewed activity In 
hard rock deposits depends upon several factors which includes: 

1) Depletion of present premium grades {lh% BPL"'' and above) and 
quantities of land pebble deposits. 

2) Reduced transportation costs. 

3) Minimum competition from other sources of phosphates. 



Land Pebble Phosphate Deposits 

Most of the phosphate produced In Florida comes from the Bone Valley 
Field in Polk and Hillsborough Counties. These rich phosporite (phosphatic, 
clayey sand) beds of south Florida are termed "land pebble" phosphati 
deposits. This term has also been applied to deposits in the rich 
phosphate beds of the Hawthorne Formation in northern Florida. 



:e 



w 



In north central Florida, pebbles and grains of phosphate minerals occur 
throughout the sediments of the Hawthorne Formation and also occur as 
concentrations in lenses or other irregular bodies. PIrkle (1967) 
reported on important occurrences of pebble phosphate in the upper part 
of Hawthorne Formation near Gainesville in Alachua County. This zone of 
phosphatic materials varies in thickness from a few feet to 30 or kO 
feet and consists largely of pebbles and grains of phosphate embedded 
with varying combinations of sand, clay, and carbonate materials. 
Reserves between 30 and 50 million tons are cited for Alachua County with 
a grade exceeding 50% BPL In recoverable phosphorous. 

Other existing or potentially valuable deposits in the region recognized 
by Mansfield (19^2) Include an area of about 16,000 acres In Bradford 
County between Brooker and Hampton and along Olustee Creek In Columbia 
and Union Counties. In addition, Hamilton County Is reported to have 
an extensive area (about 62,000 acres) of pebble bearing phosphate extend- 
ing from the UI th 1 acoochee to Alapaha Rivers. Available literature 
suggests that the quality of these reserves varies from about 55 to 
10% uPL and are generally amendable to benefaction techniques. 

Additional areas have attracted particular Interest as evidenced by 
actual mining activities. Information Circular Number 6 of the Florida 
Bureau of Geology (1978) reports two phosphate mining operations In the 
region. The Loncala Phosphate Company operated one mine In Gilchrist 
County in 1968. However, Information Circular Mumber 88 (1972) does 



•'•'I.O percent BPL (Bone Phosphate of Lime or tricalcium phosphate) 
2^5' °^ SPI- equals P20r 



equals 0.^53 percent P^Oc, or BPL equals P-,0^ times 2.135 



77 



not record production by this mine. Both references, however, recognize 
the continual operation of the Occidental Chemical Corporation mine 
near White Springs in Hamilton County. No production figures are 
available for either area. 

In addition to these activities, information is available which suggests 
continued interest by mining companies in areas having phosphate reserves 
in Alachua, Bradford and Union Counties and, perhaps move significantly, 
in and around the Osceola National Forest of Columbia County where 
mining leases are held by various companies. Such continued interest 
is indeed warranted. It must be recognized that phosphate producers 
must eventually mine lower grade materials because it is a nonrenewable 
resource, and although there is a great quantity of low grade phosphate 
in the Bone Valley District, there is also a tremendous potential for the 
development of additional phosphate deposits in areas of north central 
Flor i da. 

In summary, the pebble phosphate deposits which occur near the top of the 
Hawthorne Formation in the plateau area of north central Florida do 
contain significant amounts of low grade phosphate reserves. Therefore, 
the potential for economic development of phosphate reserves in the 
future, particularly in light of rising population and increased demand 
or food production, is a reality which must be considered in regional 
plans and programs. 



GYPSUM 



Although the United States has huge reserves of gypsum, the mineral is 
only known for minor occurrences in Florida. in general, gypsum (a 
hydrous calcium sulfate) is a common mineral thought to have been 
formed by the evaporation of sea water. Many gypsum beds were originally 
deposited as anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate) which was changed to 
gypsum in alteration processes associated with weathering. Occur- 
rences of gypsum in Florida are associated with areas having sulfur 
waters which have encountered shell or limestone fragments. Several 
gypsum localities are known in the state but none has enough reported 
reserves to be economically extracted. No natural accumulations are 
reported in this region of north central Florida and most of the raw 
gypsum consumed in Florida is imported. 

Of minor importance, but worthy of note is the calcium sulphate waste 
product obtained from the preparation of superphosphate fertilizer. This 
"gypsum" could be recovered. However, from a commercial point of 
view, the quantity of such material is small. The possibility of a by- 
product use with this gypsum product presents an interesting problem in 
industrial chemistry because of its potential conversion into ammonium 



78 



sulfate fertilizer, or other Industrial chemicals. Perhaps even more 
importantly it may be utilized as a soil additive in areas of depleted 
soil quality or inferior character. 



SAND 



As evidenced by the preceding section on geology, sand is one of the most 
abundant surface materials In the region, with the thickest sequences 
occurring In the northern and eastern portions of the region. Here, 
sand deposits may be found to exceed 100 feet in some localities. 

Sand is an unconsolidated granular material composed of a mixture of 
many minerals. However, with the exception of the shell and carbonate 
content of the coastal sands, the dominant mineral In the sand deposit 
Is quartz (silicon dioxide). The quartz sands of Florida have had a 
complicated history. All have been transported to the state and are 
found In fluvial, deltaic, marine and aeol Ian deposits. The Pleistocene 
terrace deposits are a prime example of marine shoreline accumulation. 
Examples of all forms of accumulation may be found in the region. 

Although many sites in the region have been mined in the past and new 
sites utilized as demand requires, the sand remains a common variety 
useful as building material and to sui t othe^r general purpose require- 
ments. It has not been found to have a high degree of purity or constant 
composition such as those suitable for glass manufacture or for similar 
special products requiring a high grade material. Such a sand product 
suitable for glass production Is generated as a by-product of clay mining 
in nearby Putnam County, however. 

Sand deposits In the region, although abundant, are useful only for 
general purposes but apparently not significant In terms of economic 
potential. Adequate supplies may be found in most counties of the region 
to meet local construction needs. In part, owing to its abundance, sand 
remains a low value material which cannot' tol era te high cost trans- 
portation over long distances to be economically competitive. 



I L AND GAS RESOURCES 



It appears that there has alv/ays been an interest in the possibility of 
producing oil and gas in Florida. Since the establishment of the Florida 
Geological Survey in 1907, attempts have been made to record details of 
all exploratory drilling and to gather historical data on previous 



79 



exploration wherever possible. In June, 19^5, the Florida Legislature 
enacted a law regulating the drilling of oil and gas. This law required 
that information collected be kept on file wi th the Flor i da Geological 
Survey. This promoted more accurate data aquisition as well as the 
creation of a filing system to be used for future reference and utilization 
in exploration surveys. 

Wells drilled prior to 1939 were based largely on general geologic 
evidence or hunches, such as topographic and physiographic resemblance 
to oil fields located in other areas. From 19^0 to the present, the 
exploration of oil and gas has been rather extensively conducted by the 
major oil companies. Although wells have been drilled all over Florida, 
including a number in Alachua County, no more than traces of oil were 
found in this region. 

During 1972, nine oil fields were producing in Florida six of which are 
located in the Sunnyland Limestone of Collier, Hendry and Lee 
Counties. The other three are located in Santa Rosa County. At the 
present time, although explorations are continually being carred in the 
state, there appears to be little evidence to suggest that oil or gas 
reserves will be found beneath north central Florida except perhaps on 
the continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico where explorations have not 
yet proven fruitful. 



GENERAL CONS I DERATIONS 



Within the region, there most likely are mineral deposits which have 
not yet been found and others, such as phosphate resources, that are not 
commercially mineable at this time. Continual advances in prospecting 
and benefaction techniques along with the changes demands for rock and 
mineral resources will undoubtly enhance the extraction potential of 
many deposits in the region in future years. Essential elements of 
land use planning must, therefore, consider in realistic terms, resource 
management concepts such as conservation and preservation, renewable and 
non-renewable resources, and environmental impacts, balancing all issues 
with human requirements. 

With respect to resource management, of particular concern are impacts on 
land resources from extractive operations. Mined areas are usually highly 
erosive and unless remedial actions are employed, will not recover 
naturally for many years if at all. Limestone quarries, sand and phos- 
phate strip mines and other historical evidences of open pit mining which 
have not yet been reclaimed exist within the region. 

Information has been presented in the USDA Cooperative Survey of the 
Northeast Gulf River Basins In Florida, Alabama, and Georaia relative 



80 



to surface mining activities In Florida. Drawing from that publication, 
information for Florida counties includes an estimate of total acres 
needing reclamation, acres in which there Is a legal obligation for 
reclamation and "orphan" acres, i.e., land which no one has an obligation 
to reclaim. The figures presented in Table 16 are noted as being current 
only through January, 197^, because as mining and reclamation operations 
continue, it Is not possible to remain current. 

It is evident that reclamation of disturbed areas will continue to be 
a problem in the general absence of mining regulations within the 
region. Of all the counties In the region, only Alachua at the time of 
writing, possess an ordinance which gives local government some measure 
of control over land resources with their jurisdiction. Bradford County 
has considered but rejected such a proposition, while Columbia County Is 
developing mining regulations at the present time. The need will become 
more acute in future years. The development and Implementation of effective 
mining and reclamation ordinances region-wide is encouraged. 

A nap has been included Illustrating the arial distribution of potentially 
recoverable rock and mineral resources in the region. The general ranking 
or value of each resource Is subjective in nature and based upon an eval- 
uation of current mining efforts, estimates of available reserves and 
economic potential as well as a consideration of potential future utili- 
zation. The ranking as represented was developed with the assistance of 
Mr. Michael Knapp, Geologist, with the Florida Bureau of Geology. Mapping 
v^/as accomplished utilizing unpublished surface lithology maps prepared 
by that agency for the thirty minute sectional maps entitled, "Valdosta, 
Georgia and Gainesville, Florida." The sequence of relative values to 
the region Is as follows: 



Phosphate 

Limestone 

Dolomite (limestone) 

Sand 



Greatest relative value 



Least relative value 



81 



TABLE 16 

LAND TREATMENT NEEDS ON STRIP MINED AREAS 



IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 



COUNTY 


MINED 
ACRES 


RECLAIMED 
ACRES 


TO BE 
RECLAIMED 
ACCORDING 
TO LAW 


"ORPHAN" 
ACRES 


TOTAL 1 
NEEDING 
TREATMENT 
I 


Alachua 


9200 








9200 


I 

9200 
I 


Bradford 


340 


340 





• 


Co 1 umb ia 


525 


201 





324 


324 


Dixie 


75 








75 


75 1 


Gi Ichr ist 


30 








30 


30 


Hami ] ton 


3^0 





340 





340 


Lafayette 


11 








11 


11 


Mad i son 


itOO 


80 





320 


320 1 


Suwannee 


1850 








1850 


1850 


Tay lor 


]k 








14 


14 


Un i on 

















TOTALS 


12770 


621 


340 


1 1824 


1 

12164 



Source: Volume 1, Northeast Gul'^ River Basin Study for Florida, 

Alabama, and Georgia. USDA Cooperative Survey, November, 
1976. 



82 




MILES 

/I07e KILOMETERS 

Norlh Central Florida Regional Planning Council 



ROCK and MINERAL RESOURCES 



□ 



NO KNOWN 
ECONOMIC RESOURCES 



SAND 



sing »i I 

mic I I 



LIMESTONE / DOLOMITE 



LIMESTONE 



PHOSPHATE 



so I LS 



NTRODUCTl ON 



Soils are demonstrably important in all formal and informal planning 
activities because almost every work of man is necessarily limited to 
them as a basic starting point. They constitute one of our most valuable 
resources and by their function are basic to all life processes. As 
such, soil provides the medium for growing food and fiber and also pro- 
vides the foundation for homes, stores, factories, schools, airports, 
roads, playgrounds and other land uses. 

Soils may be defined as distinct three dimensional bodies of material 
lying at the earth's surface limited by the atmosphere above, bedrock or 
transitional rock material below and other soil bodies laterally. They 
have formed as a result of interacting physical, chemical and biological 
processes ano have been conditioned by climate over a period of time to 
form a mixture of weathered rock material and minerals, organic matter, 
water and air in varying proportions. 

Many characteristics or properties of soils may be shown to have a direct 
influence on the types of feasibility of urban development. These 
characteristics include permeability, infiltration, wetness, depth to 
water table, depth to bedrock, texture and slope. Detailed descriptions 
including physical and chemical properties as well as limitations and 
capabilities are developed and reported for each kind of soil delineated 
on soil maps. Such maps provide a strong basis for developing land use 
alternatives by local governments and private developers. 



SO I LS AND PLANN I NG 



Early investigations Into soil types were promoted by the growth of our 
agriculturally oriented society coupled v/ith the needs of an expanding 
nation into a new continent. Further impetus for use of soils information 
was brought about during World War II when engineering interpretations of 
soil capabilities were necessary to adequately plan for military con- 
struction and operation. Since the early 1950's, detailed soil surveys 
coupled with In-depth soil analysis and interpretation have shown that 



35 



soils information is valuable for both general and operational planning, 
particularly if soil suitability interpretations have been prepared by 
soi 1 sci ent ists . 

Soil survey information and interpretations are as important for urban 
use as they are for agricultural use. Adequate soil Information greatly 
assists in developing and understanding the capabilities and limitations 
of sites for variety of land use activities. Experience gained from 
selecting soils for farming, ranching, and forestry may be applied 
equally well to selecting and evaluating sites for housing, highways, 
and a variety of other uses. The publication entitled "Ten Year Master 
Plan for Accelerating the Soil Survey of Florida" (1972) states that the 
minimum cost benefit ratio afforded by soil surveys to be on the order 
of 1:48 in low intensity areas. Cost benefit ratios expand to 1:123 in 
areas with high intensity land uses. 

Specifically, a soil survey is an acre by acre inventory of soil resources 
It is developed through onsite investigations by a soil scientist who 
classifies soils encountered according to a national system of soil 
taxonomy. Following the location of soil types on aerial photographs, 
each soil is interpreted as to Its potential or limitations when 
subjected to various uses in management. Combined with maps and explan- 
atory texts soil surveys are normally published on a county basis. As 
such, these surveys form the basis for all resource conservation plan- 
ning assistance provided bu U5DA Soil Conservation Service soil scientists 
to citizens and local governments. 

In Florida, the Soil Conservation Service and the Florida Agricultural 
Experiment Stations have joint authority and responsibility for conducting 
soil surveys. Although PL k6 enacted by the Congress gives federal 
responsibility to the Soil Conservation Service for all soil survey 
activities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Florida Law 604 (1941) 
provides for a state-wide soil survey which shares responsibility for 
soil surveys with the Agricultural Experiment Station of the University 
of Florida. Both agencies therefore cooperate in the soil survey program 
for Florida. The Soil Conservation Service is responsible for all field 
mapping and publications, while the Agricultural Experiment Station con- 
tributes laboratory analysis of soils and assists In soils interpretations. 

The USDA Soil Conservation Service Is presently conducting an accelerated 
soil survey program In Florida. This effort began In 1973, and its goal 
Is to have modern soil surveys completed for each county in the state by 
1983- in comparison, at mapping rates occuring prior to this program, 
the complet ion of a state survey was not anticipated to occur until the 
year 2015. 

Unfortunately, the ten year accelerated program lags at least two years 
behind schedule due to inadequate funding. At the present time, the Soil 
Conservation Service, representing the federal government in the Co- 
operative Soil Survey Program, budgets approximately $372,000 annually 



86 



for soil surveys In Florida. The Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations 
add an additional amount of about $57,000 per year. The Florida legislature 
is participating in the program also although the degree of assistance 
provided has generally been less than optimum because of the necessity 
for reduced appropriations. Only one year in the past three has been 
fully funded. In order to expedite the soil survey in individual counties, 
local governments are also requested to provide nominal financial assistance 
to soil conservation service efforts in this program. 

In summary, forty-six percent of the funds allocated have been appropriated 
since the accelerated soil survey program was initiated. Approximately 
seventy-one percent of the mapping goal has been achieved to date, 
modifying the estimated time of completion to 1990. 



Table 17 summari 
Of the eleven co 
County has a com 
has slowed consi 
of the county ha 
Progress in all 
the present with 
assistance. Ina 
des i re to part ic 
that the Sol 1 Co 
region to the ex 
ind i cated a wi 1 1 
surveys . 



zes the status of soil surveys in north central Florida, 
unties in the region, it i s of note that only Suwannee 
plete modern soil survey. Progress on such a survey 
derably in Alachua County after only about twenty percent 
s been mapped due to variations in County funding, 
counties of the region will remain minimal at least for 
mapping only occuring as necessary for immediate site 
smuch as no other county in the region has Indicated a 
ipate in the Accelerated Soil Program, It Is unlikely 
nservation Service will recognize a priority need In this 
elusion of other counties In this state which have 
Ingness to financially assist in the preparation of 



TABLE 17 
STATUS OF SOIL SURVEYS IN NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA 





TOTAL ACRES 


ACRES 


COUNTY 


IN COUNTY 


MAPPED 


Alachua 


570,880 


184,600 


Bradford 


187,520 





Col umb la 


503,040 


1 12,000 


Dixie 


it40,320 


565 


Gi Ichrist 


216,960 





Ham I 1 ton 


328,960 





Lafayette 


3^7,520 





Madi son 


449,280 





Suv/annee 


443,280 





Tay lor 


660,480 


9,730 


Un ion 


153,600 






Source: Updated from the Ten Year Master Plan for Accelerating the 
Soil Survey of Florida. 



87 



SOI L MAPS 



Soil maps at various scales and degrees of generalization may be developed 
and utilized along with interpretations to provide basic planning data for 
rural as well as urbanizing areas. The scale and detail of soil maps or 
the level of generalization of soils data required, are determined by the 
intensity of planning desired. Detailed soil maps are designated to meet 
the needs of operational planning and offer the highest amount of 
precision and predictability. In comparison, general soils maps are 
designed for general or broad planning purposes. Both general and de- 
tailed soil maps may be interpreted or explained by using tables, nar- 
ratives, and interpretive maps which illustrate ratings as to soil 
suitabilities, limitations or potential for various uses, such as those 
ut i 1 ized herein . 

Detailed soil maps are provided to meet the needs for operational 
planning. The scale of detailed maps is normally 1:20,000 (3-17 inches 
= 1 mile) or 1:15,340 {h inches = 1 mile). The smallest size of sig- 
nificant soil separation is about two to three acres. Examples of 
such soils may be found in the modern soil surveys completed for 
Suwannee County and those preliminary soil survey maps prepared in 
Columbia and Alachua Counties. 

General soil maps are made by summarizing information from detailed soil 
maps, by reconna isance , and/or by utilizing information on relief, 
geology, vegetation, climate, land use and other indicators of soil 
types. Such maps are very useful as a tool in broad scale planning 
by providing Information on an area's general suitability for various 
land uses. General soil maps, with the smallest soil delineation of 
only about kO acres are not suitable for detailed planning purposes. 
Therefore, the broad soils generalizations mapped herein must be recognized 
as intended to show only general soils conditions. The General Soils 
Atlas for Regional Planning Districts III and IV is the only complete 
compilation of general soils maps for all counties in this region. 
Therefore, it forms the basis for the regional soils analysis performed 
for this study. 

Each delineation on the general soil maps represent a group of soils that 
occur together In nature to form a distinct "soil association." Each 
association consists of one or more major soils and at least one minor 
soil. Associations are named for the major soil constituent. Table l8 
which follows, lists the soil associations that occur within the region 
grouped according to the relative degree of limitations for community 
deve I opmen t . 

For each soil association defined in the Soils Atlas, an evaluation Is 
provided which defines the associations relative degree of limitations 
based upon certain defined uses. Applying only to soils In their natural 
state, the degree and kind of limitation is defined for sanitary facilities. 



88 



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89 



community development and water management among other potential uses. 
Soil limitations are indicated by the ratings: slight, moderate and 
severe. These are not suitability ratings but more precisely are measured 
of degree or intensity of soli limitations or hazards. As such, they do 
not represent strict restrictions on soil use as most soils are suitable 
for all uses if provisions can be made to overcome the problems presented. 
Provided adequate funding is available, modern engineering techniques may 
be utilized to overcome almost any soil limitation. 

A map prepared for this text entitled General Soil Suitability for Com- 
munity Development summarizes the interpretations found In the General 
Soils Atlas for community development. The components of community 
development identified for analysis include an evaluation of soil 
suitability for shallow excavations, dwellings, light industry and local 
roads and streets. In addition, due to the predominantly rural nature 
of the region and the dependence of septic systems for waste disposal, 
the soil limitations for septic tank absorption fields was also Included 
as part of the analysis. in this regional assessment, each of the fifty- 
nine soil associations in the region was assigned a numerical value 
based upon the average limitations assigned to community development and 
soil suitability for septic tank absorption fields. Utilizing the as- 
sistance of the Alachua County Soil Conservation Service office, relative 
numerical values representing each soil association were calculated and 
utilized to identify six separate but distinct groups of associations 
in which each group was broadly categorized by degree of suitability for 
community development. It was therefore possible to define on a regional 
scale broad groups of soils which would tend to enhance or limit 
development. 



90 



SOIL POTENTIAL 
FOR 
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 



/107S KILOMETERS 

North Central Florida RagKMUl Planning Council 




VEGETATI ON 



NTRODUCTI ON 



In this chapter, two broad categories of terrestrial vegetation, forests 
and agriculture are considered. Both plant associations are vital to the 
maintenance of human systems. Vegetative growth provides a basic mech- 
anism for the transfer of solar energy and the recycling of nutrients 
into usable forms. The raw materials for food, fuel, th^ construction 
of shelter, wildlife habitat and other environmental amenities produced 
in these biological communities reflect their values as renewable natural 
resources. 



AGRICULTURE 



Genera 1 



Florida possesses highly favorable conditions for agricultural pursuits. 
It has an abundance of land and water; and while many of our soils are 
not naturally fertile, they do respond well to fertilization and proper 
management. Compared to many parts of the world, Florida's water supply, 
"ainfall, long growing season and warm winters are superlative and en- 
courage intensive agriculture and animal husbandry. 

Although agriculture has historically been one of the most stable and 
Important segments of Florida's economy, it remains sensitive to the 
problems and uncerta in 1 1 i es of our modern society. The realities of 
managing our energy Intensive agricultural system In a world with 
limited and finite energy resources emphasizes the need for innovation 
planning In the future. Similarly, population Increases within the 
State and throughout the world will undoubtedly cause the demand for 
agricultural products to continually Increase. In addition to the high 
demand for agricultural products, other problems Indigenous to our modern 
society must be overcome if our full potential for agricultural growth 
is to be achieved In the future. These problems Include: Increasing 



93 



urbanization and the subsequent removal of prime agricultural lands 
from production, the economics of agriculture in a rapidly changing 
economic state, the effect and subsequent management of agricultural 
land uses as it affects our quality of life and the environment, govern- 
mental regulation and conditions of marketing and the availability of 
efficient and economic labor related programs. 

Agriculture, grazing and forestry are first elements in the use of the 
land. Although the production of food and fiber can be viewed as re- 
newable resources, because of tremendous increases in population 
pressure and energy and economic related limitations it has become 
apparent that productive land is almost beyond value. In addition to 
Its enhanced traditional role of providing food and fiber, the preservation 
of agriculture as an open space type land use contributes to our high 
quality of life by maintaining the quality of the natural environment 
through the effects that plants and soil have on air and water supply; 
by providing wildlife habitats and private outdoor recreational areas; 
by providing opportunities for the recycling of urban solid and liquid 
wastes through the plant-soil system; and by providing productive, taxable, 
privately-maintained open space for the aesthetic enjoyment of our urban 
populat ion. 



Agriculture In North Central Florida 



Agriculture remains a major land use in the region with about 1,^15,130 
acres of 2,211 square miles In farm land as reported in the 197^ Census 
of Agriculture. More recent figures (1976 Council estimates) Indicate 
the presence of approximately 1,785 square miles of agricultural land 
use in the region. The difference between the two may largely be at- 
tributable to the Inclusion of farm woodlands in the earlier figure. 
For comparative purposes, it is noted that agriculture occupies about 
26^ of the land area In the region. In contrast, forested lands make 
up 58% (3,960 square miles) of the region's land area, wetlands cover 
8% (5^5 square miles), developed lands cover 3-7% (250 square miles) and 
open water and miscellaneous land uses occupy the remainder of the region. 

it is apparent from Table 19, County Agricultural Summary (197^), that 
agriculture is a major industry in the region. At that time, there 
were 5,011 farms in the region whose average size varied by county from 
153 to 1,1^2 acres. Approximately one-half of the farm land in each 
county was used for crop production. The remaining farm lands can be 
classified as pasture and used to a lesser extent for orchards, hor- 
ticultural products and other uses. It is noteworthy that the total value I 
of agricultural products marketed In 197^ exceeded $1^0 million for ' 

the region and represented a sizeable Income for many counties. As 
utilized in this report, it should be noted that the 197^ Census of | 

Agriculture defines a farm as "any place from which $250 or more of [ 



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agricultural products were sold, or normally would have been sold, during 
the census year, or any place of 10 acres or more from v;hich $50 or 
more of agricultural products were sold, or normally would have been 
sold, during the census year." 

Agriculture has been one of the region's most stable industries, yet in 
some ways, its vitality appears to be declining. Examples may be 
drawn from the 197^ Census of Agriculture which provides data for the five 
year 1969 to 197^- During this period, the total number of farms in the 
region decreased from 5,36^ to 5,011, a decline of 1%. Dixie and Taylor 
Counties suffered a lk% and \S% loss in farms respectively, the greatest 
relative decrease in the region. The total farm acreage likewise 
decreased about 13% and the average farm size was reduced 6%. During 
this same time period, total production expenses increased an average of 
11% in the region and the total value of agricultural products kept 
pace increasing 8l^ for the region. Table 20, Changes in Agriculture, 
summarizes the general changes in agriculture which have occurred in the 
region on a county by county basis. 

Based upon the 197^ Census of Agriculture, and supplemented with current 
information contributed by County Agricultural Extension Directors, it Is 
possible to obtain an overview of agricultural production In the region. 
In general, the major crops produced within the region. In terms of 
market value, include corn and grains, tobacco and liay crops. Important 
livestock production centers around poultry and poulrry products, beef 
cattle and sv/ine. Other notable large crops significant to several 
counties include watermelon and forest products. 

Farmers in the region also produce a number of smaller crop products 
which illustrate the diversity of the region's agricultural potential. 
These include miscellaneous vegetables, fruits, nuts and berries, dairy 
products, horses and turkey. In general, these crops contribute a small 
but increasingly important source of income to the counties In which they 
are. produced. Specific Information pertaining to the quantity and market 
value of agricultural products generated within the region will be 
maintained in Council files and utilized as necessary to assist in land 
use and agricultural planning efforts. 



Problems and Valu e s o f A g r I c u 1 tur a 1 La n d 



In developing natural land for agricultural uses, native vegetation is 
cleared away and crop plans maintained in their place. In brief, a 
naturally diverse community is replaced with a monoculture. Herbicides 
and insecticides are commonly used to maintain and optimize the growth 
of a few preferred plan species and to help prevent their utilization by 
organisms other than those beneficial to man. As the size of agricultura 



96 



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fields and the intensity of their management increase, their value to 
species other than man diminishes. Frequently, the side affects of 
intensive land management, such as runoff with its load of fertilizers, 
pesticides and soil, has an adverse impact beyond boundaries of the 
land being managed. These and other problems related to farming present 
potential hazards to neighboring ecosystems as well as to the agricultural 
land i tsel f . 

Water and wildlife may be used as two examples to illustrate unnecessary 
resource depletion where conservation practices are not efficiently 
utilized. Because water control and development require a delicate 
balancing of all hydrologic, economic and human influences within water- 
sheds, cultivation and cropping practices must have an essential regard 
for water control on a local as well as regional level. Damage to wild- 
life may result primarily through a reduction in habitat where cover, 
feed and water are removed or altered from their natural state. Al- 
though a considerable amount of this is to be expected with some 
agricultural uses of land, good conservation farming employing such 
practices as grassed waterways, vegetated slopes, farm ponds and other 
modifications often results in the support of more wildlife compatible 
to farms. 

Although there is little doubt that crop land development and use may have 
an adverse impact on related resources such as forest and prairies, some 
of this development is justifiable because of the high priority that 
necessarily must be assigned to agricultural land. Therefore, because 
of economics, product need and demand and the intangible values at- 
tributed to land for this use, conservation approaches to agricultural 
land should be continually encouraged. This type of encouragement is 
being provided in each county by the County Agricultural Extension Service, 
the Soil Conservation Service and the Soil Conservation and Stabilization 
Service, which promote wise management of all elements of the resource 
base. In addition, because agriculture has become an important aspect 
of the ecology of the region, the retention of well managed and productive 
farm lands should be considered of equal Importance to forest and wet- 
land areas. 

In addition to the problems described as indigenous to the proper manage- 
ment of farm lands such as those concerning erosion, Irrigation and 
agricultural runoff, a number of other problems have been Identified by 
the County USDA Agricultural Agents. These problems, many of which are 
common to all farmers, must be recognized at an early stage of land use 
planning in order that proper consideration may be made wherever possible 
through the comprehensive planning process. These problems Include: 

1) Increasing farmland prices will make It difficult to young 
people to become farmers In the future unless they have 
grown up on a family farm. 

2) There Is a need for more research and educational programs 
on agricultural land management, Including pest, weed and 
di sease cont rol . 



98 



3) Urban sprawl and the breaking up of farms due to econonic 

pressures of developers is slowly reducing the amount of farm- 
land ava i lable for agricul ture. 

k) Land prices are rapidly increasing making it very difficult for 
farmers to expand their working base. 

5) Increasing taxes often place a disproportionate share of the 
community financial burden on farmers and discourages the 
preservation of agricultural lands. 

6) It will become necessary to insure adequate water allocations 
for irrigation through water resources planning. 

7) Greater efficiency in cropland and cleared land management is 
necessary to retard wind and water caused soil erosion. 

8) The level of education of farms must be improved so that the 
benefits and practices of modern farming technology might be 
better understood and implemented within the region. 

9) The availability of a financial planning and advisory service 
for farms would help facilitate sound farm planning. 



Agriculture and Soils 



Because the type, quantity and quality of any vegetation depends in large 
degree upon the type of soil in which that vegetation occurs, planning 
around soil types is integral to good agricultural land management. 

The U.S. Soil Conservation Service has established a capability classifica- 
tion for soils by which soil groups are categorized as to their general 
suitability for agricultural use. This is a practical grouping based 
upon limitations of the soils, the risk of damage when they are used 
and the way they respond to treatment. The eight capability classes are 
designed by Roman Numerals l-Vlli. Soils in Class I have few limitations, 
the widest range of use and the least risk of damage when they are used. 
Those in the other classes have progressively greater natural limitations. 
Soils in Class VIM are rough, shallow or otherwise limited so that they 
do not produce worthwhile yields of crops, forage or v/ood products. 
Table 21 summarizes the eight classes in the SCS agricultural capability 
system. 

For the purpose of broadly recognizing areas of north central Florida which 
exhibit various qualities or potential for agriculture, the 59 soil 
associations described in the General Soils Atlas for each of the eleven 
counties in the region './as evaluated. A simple aralysis was performed 
for each association in which a numerical value was assigned on the basis 
of its agricultural capability class, limitations to agriculture (wetness, 
erosion, etc.) and potential for crops. With the assistance of USDA 
soil scientists the soil associations were grouped into five general 
categories and ranked according to their relative potential or suitability 



99 



TABLE 21 
AGRICULTURAL CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR SOILS 

CLASS DESCRIPTION 

I Soils have few limitations that restrict their use. 

II Soils that have some limitations that reduce the choice of 
plants that require moderate conservation practices. 

Ill Soils have severe limitations that reduce the choice of plants 
or that require special conservation practices or both. 

IV Soils that have very severe limitations that restrict the 

choice of plants or that require very careful management or 
both. 

V Soils that are not likely to erode, but have other limitations, 
impractical to remove, that restrict their use largely to 
pasture, woodland, or food and cover for wildlife. 

VI Soils that have severe limitations that make them generally 
unsuitable for cultivation and that restrict their use 
largely to pasture, range, woodland, or wildlife. 

Vll Soils that have very severe limitations that make them generally 
unsuitable for cultivation and that restrict their use largely 
to grazing, woodland or wildlife. 

VIM Soils and landforms that have limitations that preclude their 

use for commercial plants and restrict their use to recreation, 
wildlife, water supply, or to aesthetic purposes. 

Source: General Soils Atlas for Planning Districts III and IV, 197^. 



for agriculture. Table 22, Agricultural Potential for Soil Associations, 
Illustrates the soils categories defined by this analysis. The Agricultural 
Suitability Map contained herein visually reflects the areal distribution 
and ranking of these soil associations. 

In summary, the agriculture industry in north central Florida is essential 
to Its economic well-being and Important to meet growing demands for 
agricultural products. Although poor agricultural management practices 
can have serious effects upon surrounding ecosystems as well as the 
agricultural land itself, the Importance of sound management is generally 
recognized by the farmers of the region and encouraged by County Ag- 
ricultural Extension Agents and the USDA Soil Conservation Service. 



100 






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SOIL POTENTIAL 

FOR 

AGRICULTURE 



I 



□ 



Increasing 
Suitability lor 
Agriculture 



i 



□ 






I 



FORESTRY 



General 



Forests cover approximately one-third of the total land area of the 
United States. Although forest types vary considerably between regions, 
most produce, or are capable of supporting, five basic resources including 
water, wildlife, timber, recreation and domestic forage. 

As evidenced by rapidly rising prices for forest products, the present 
level of forest productivity is Inadequate to meet current demands. 
Total wood consumption is currently about 2,750 pounds per capita annually 
and the demand for paper and wood products Is expected to more than 
double by the year 2000. Yet the forest land base Is steadily declining 
with over 500,000 acres lost nationally each year to other uses. Studies 
by the U.S. Forest Service indicates that forest lands can be made to 
sustain much larger annual harvests than at present. It appears that 
the solution Is not one primarily of providing more space, but of wise 
management of forest lands. At the present time, only a relatively few 
foresters and private owners are actually supervising the maintenance of 
our forests during a period which could have significant national con- 
sequences . 

This eleven county region of north central Florida contains a large 
amount of forested lands and is dependent on its forests and wood using 
industries for much of its Income. A cons i derat ion of our forests as 
one of our most significant natural resources is essential. 



Forestry In North Central Florl d a 



This eleven county north central Florida region, according to the Florida 
Division of Forestry publication entitled Timber for Tomorrow , contains 
^,278,300 acres of land of which approximately 3,215,500 acres are 
forested. An estimated 11,03^ acres are considered non-productive or 
are reserved from production, leaving 3,20^,466 total acres of forested 
land in the region. This amount is defined as commercial forest land In 
the region or for the purposes of this report, simply as forest land which 
is producing or capable of producing crops of industrial wood and not 
withdrawn from timber production. 

Table 23, entitled Forest Land by County, Illustrates the forest land 
area distribution within the region. The significance of this major land 
use Is apparent v/ith forested lands covering from h6.~ to 9 1 "c of each 
county and a total forest land area for the region of 73- 2o. This amount 



105 



TABLE 23 
FOREST LAND BY COUNTY 





LAND 


FOREST 


PERCENT 


COUNTY 


AREA 


LAND 


FOREST 


Alachua 


588.2 


311.4 


52.9^0 


Bradford 


188.5 


148.1 


78.6^ 


Co 1 umbi a 


515.3 


385.2 


75.6^ 


Dixie 


456.7 


393.6 


86.2% 


Gi Ichr ist 


227.0 


150.8 


66 . 4% 


Hami 1 ton 


329.0 


252.2 


77. 0°^ 


Lafayette 


352.0 


294.7 


83.8°^ 


Madi son 


456.8 


323.9 


70.9% 


Suwannee 


439.1 


204.2 


46.6% 


Taylor 


668.2 


607.0 


91.5% 


Un ion 


158.0 


133.3 


84.7% 


TOTAL 


4,378.8 


3,204.5 


73.2% 



"See Appendix 3 

Source: Forest Statistics for Northeast Florida, 



1970. 



is equal to about 20% of the state's total commercial forested lands, 
making this the second largest forested region in Florida. 

Within the region, land ownership is dominated by the forest industry 
which owns approximately 53.7% of all forested lands. Farm holdings of 
forest lands are second with 18.3%, followed by 15-1% held by private 
owners, 4.8% by private corporations, 2.3% in National Forests and less 
than 1% by state and other public owners. 



Of the Indus 
39% and fal r 
eel laneous p 
farmer. Rap 
ments in r i s 
from the sol 
i 1 1 us trates 
s I gn i f i can t 
ticularly ev 
Taylor (33%) 
There is no 
area in any 



try owned forested 
ly wel 1 dom inate t 
rivate and corpora 
id increases in pr 
i ng land values mo 
I . Table 24, Area 
the breakdown of f 
degree of land own 
ident by ownership 
, Lafayette (75-0 , 
other ownership in 
one county. 



lands, the pulp and paper companies own 
he forest practices of the region. Mls- 
te owners together own more land than the 
ivate ownership are primarily due to invest' 
re than in anticipated returns of yeilds 
of Forest Land by Ownership and County, 
orest lands by owner in the region. A 
ership by the forest industry is par- 
percentages exceeding 50% in Dixie (93%), 
Hamilton (57'), and Union (57%) Counties, 
the region which exceeds 50% of the land 



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108 



Because of the conflicting values of land use, such as those lands 
utilized for housing, public facilities and utilities, as well as pressures 
for additional lands for recreational use, the amount of land available 
for forestry, as for other forms of agriculture, is most likely to con- 
tinually decrease in future years. And although some lands will undoubtedly 
revert to forestry use, such as agricultural lands which might be put to 
tree farming, it is not likely that minor land use changes will be 
significant and that commercial forestry practices will extend to poorer 
quality land. It is more likely that Increasing trends for more inten- 
sive forest management will continue coupled with an overall gradual 
decline in the area of commercial forest lands. 

From Table 25, Forested Land by Type and Area, it may be seen that over 
60^ of the total forested lands in the region consist of pine forests. 
Longleaf and slash pine forests dominate the region, covering k8.6% 
of the forested land area. Loblolly and shortleaf pine forests add 
another k.]% to the total area of pine forests. Oak-gum-cypress forests 
are the second largest category with 2kZ of the forested land area, 
followed by 13-3% in oak-hickory forests and 9-9% in oak-pine forests. 



Measures o f Forest u a 1 i t y 



There are two parameters commonly employed as measures of forest quality. 
These are stocking class and site class ratings. These parameters are 
described as follows: 

Growing stock trees are defined as living trees of any commercial species 
qualifying as desirable or acceptable trees. The amount of land well- 
stocked with such trees is a good Indicator of forest management practice. 

Stocking values are usually expressed as a percentage and do not nec- 
essarily reflect an actual volume of timber. That is, the stocking 
standard is based upon the number of acceptable trees per acre by total 
numbers when under 5 inches In diameter. When over 5 inches in diameter, 
the minimum basal area is used and expressed in square Inches to deter- 
mine the percent stocking value. Values are determined by sampling a 
statistical number of trees occurring in each unit area meeting minimum 
standards. By awarding a number of stocking percentage points for each 
sample group evaluated, it is possible to exceed 100^,. For example, the 
minimum number of seedlings per acre for full stocking would be 600 and 
for full stocking of an area of trees with a 10 inch diameter at breast 
height (D.B.H.) there would be 155 trees per acre with an average minimum 
basal area of 35 square Inches. 



Stocking percentages for the purposes of comparing forested areas are 
classified as follov/s: 



09 



Overstocked, greater than 130^ 
Ful ly stocked, 100-130% 
Understocked, less than 16.7% 



Medium stocked, 60-99% 
Poorly stocked, 16.7-59% 



The amount of land well-stocked with growing stock trees is a good in- 
dicator of forest management practices. From Table 26, Forest Land by 
Stocking Class, it can be seen that for the region as a whole, 59-2% of 
all forested lands can be considered to be fairly well-stocked, i.e. 60% 
or better stocked. In addition, it appears that Bradford, Dixie, Hamilton 
and Union Counties have the highest percentages of medium to well stocked 
lands in the region. 



TABLE 26 
FOREST LAND BY STOCKING CLASS AND COUNTY, 



1970='^ 





TOTAL 
FOREST 


STOCKING PERCENTAGE 


COUNTY 


OVER 130 


100-130 


60-99 


16.7-59 


BELOW 16.7 


Alachua 


311.0 


10.1 


33.8 


131.7 


101.3 


34.1 


Bradford 


148.1 


3.4 


34.2 


78.8 


26.3 


5.4 


Col umbia 


385.2 


15.3 


68.9 


143.4 


128.8 


28.9 


Dixie 


393.6 


16.6 


62.7 


191.7 


82.6 


40.0 


Gi 1 chr i St 


150.8 


3.8 


22.0 


47.9 • 


51.6 


25.5 


Ham i 1 ton 


252.2 


-- 


42.1 


117.9 


77.4 


14.8 


Lafayette 


29^.7 


7.2 


53.0 


79.1 


102.8 


52.6 


Mad i son 


323.9 


— 


57.2 


122.7 


111.5 


32.5 


Suwannee 


204.2 


3.5 


31.4 


68.6 


56.0 


44.7 


Tay lor 


607.0 


8.9 


90.7 


243.2 


203.7 


60.5 


Un ion 


133.3 


-- 


35.8 


74.4 


19.6 


4.0 


TOTAL 


3204.5 


68.8 


531.8 


1299.3 


961.6 


343.0 



" See Appendix 3 

+ Land area given in thousands of acres. 



Source: Forest Statistics for Northeast Florida, 1970, 



The site class rating is a classification of forest land in terms of its 
natural capacity to grow crops of industrial wood based on fully stocked 
natural stands. The rating is indicative of the ability of an area to 
produce a desirable rate of timber growth and is related to the value of 
land for forest purposes. The scale is listed as follows: 



e of producing 165 or more cubic feet per 

y- 

e of producing 120 to 165 cubic feet per 

y- 

e of producing 85 to 120 cubic feet per 

y- 

e of producing 50 to 85 cubic feet per 

y- 



Class 1 - Sites capab 

acre annual 
Class 2 - Sites capab 

acre annual 
Class 3 " Sites capab 

acre annual 
Class k - Sites capab 

acre annual 
Class 5 " Sites incapable of producing 50 cubic feet per acre 

annually by excluding unproductive sites. 



Table 27, Forest Land by Site Class and County, suggests that of the 
total, 3,204,500 acres of forested lands in the region, only relatively 
few of these lands exhibit a very good environment for high timber 
production. More recent surveys have indicated that potential timber 
productivity can be greatly increased through intensive forest management. 
(Source 31 ) • 

The previous two charts are self-explanatory. They Illustrate that while 
large areas of the region are apparently well-stocked and wel 1 -managed , 
large acreages exist where there Is a definite need for improvement. 

The quality of timber in this region is relatively good. Over half of 
the softwood and hardwood sawtlmber volumes are considered to be of 
excellent quality. Although pine and other softwoods dominate the 
region's forests in both sawtlmber and growing stock volumes, recent 
trends to convert hardwood forests to softwoods should at least be 
partially offset by rising hardwood values. 



Fo re s t T y pes 



The Florida Division of Forestry has broadly classified the forested 
lands of the state according to the species forming a plurality of live- 
tree stocking. The following six forest types are found in northern 
Flor Ida : 

Long leaf-s 1 ash pine - Forests in which longleaf or slash pine, 
singly or In combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. 
Common associates Include oak, hickory, and gum. 

Loblol ly-short leaf pine - Forests In which loblolly pine, shortleaf 



111 



TABLE 27 
FOREST LAND BY SITE CLASS AND COUNTY, 1970+ 





FOREST 


SITE CLASS 


COUNTY 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


Alachua 


31 1.0 


-- 


15.2 


98.0 


180.9 


16.9 


Bradford 


148.1 


-- 


5.4 


35.1 


102.2 


5.4 


Col umbia 


335.2 


— 


4.9 


128.5 


214.9 


36.9 


Dixie 


393.6 


-- 


— 


113.7 


248.2 


31.7 


Gi 1 chr i st 


150.8 




— 


14.8 


96.0 


40.0 


Hami 1 ton 


252.2 


— 


-- 


47.8 


177.6 


26.8 


Lafayette 


294.7 


-- 


— 


42.9 


189. 3 


62.5 


Mad i son 


323.9 


— 


3.9 


52.6 


238.4 


29.0 


Suwannee 


204.2 


— 


-- 


20.9 


151.9 


31.4 


Taylor 


607. 


— 


4.5 


177.2 


341 .0 


84.3 


Un ion 


133.8 


-- 


4.0 


68.2 


53.0 


8.6 


TOTAL 


3204.5 




37.9 


799.7 


1993.4 


373.5 



+See Appendix 3 

" Land areas given in thousands of acres. 

Source: Forest Statistics for Northeast Florida, 1970 



pine, or other southern yellow pines, except longleaf or slash pine, 
singly or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. 
Common associates include oak, hickory, and gum. 

Oak-pine - Forests in which hardwoods (usually upland oaks) com- 
prise a plurality of the stocking but in which pines comprise 
25 to 50 percent of the stocking. Common associates include 
gum, hickory, and yellow poplar. 

Oak-hickory - Forests in which upland oaks or tiickory, singly or 
in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking, except 
where pines comprise 25 to 50 percent, in which case the stand 
would be classified oak-pine. Common associates include yellow 
poplar, elm, maple, and black walnut. 

Oak-gum-cypress - Bottomland or lowland forests in which tupelo, 
black gum, sweetgum, oak, or southern cypress, singly or in com- 
bination, comprise a plurality of the stocking, except where pines 



112 



comprise 25 to 50 percent, In which case the stand would be 
classified oak-pine. Common associates include cottonwood, 
v/illow, ash, elm, hackberry, and maple. 

Elm-ask-cottonwood - Forests in which elm, ash, o-r cottonwood, 
single or in combination, comprise a plurality of the stocking. 
Common associates include willow, sycamore, beech, and maple. 

The primary tree or forest types harvested and utilized in the region may 
be categorized into two principal classes: hardwoods and softwoods. The 
former includes both hard-textured and soft-textured hardwoods and are 
represented by Florida maple, birch, hickory, dogwood, sweetgum, 
magnolia and sycamore tree species. Softwoods are coniferous trees, 
usually evergreen, having needles or scale-like leaves. Examples of 
soft-woods include loblolly, longleaf, slash, and shortleaf pines, 
cypress, eastern red cedar and white cedar. Appendix one (1) has been 
included to illustrate the type and variety of trees and other natural 
vegetation found in north central Florida. 



Forest P roduc t I on 



According to the Division of Forestry publication. Timber for Tomorrow 
(197^), the gross annual growth of growing stock in the region slightly 
exceeds 13' million cubic feet. This volume is reduced by some 11 million 
cubic feet annually due to timber mortality leaving a net annual growth 
of 120,599,000 cubic feet. From this resource pool, total annual removals 
amount to 95,868,000 cubic feet of which S^% is pine and ]G% is hardwoods. 

The total annual removal of timber for Industrial products is approximately 
85,168,000 cubic feet of which A/, 128,000 cubic feet is utilized by 
industries in the region. This later amount provides nearly 70^ of the 
raw material needs for wood industries in the region. 

Although sawmills use about one third of the total wood volume produced, 
nearly two-thirds of the sawtlmber harvested in the region is delivered 
to pulp mills. These mills receive about 62^ of the softwoods produced 
and 21^ of the hardwoods. Hardwood removals for veneer logs and bolts 
account for h'^% of the remaining hardwood harvest. The wood industry as 
reported in Timber for Tomorrow , employed 3, ^^5 people In 11^ companies 
during 197^. In that year, total yearly payrolls approached S2^ million 
and shipment values exceeded $100 million. The 23 primary processing 
plants In the region covert timber to rough cut lumber, veneer, poles, 
posts, pulpwood and charcoal. 

As evidenced by the figures on forest growth and harvest there is. In 
general, a balanced condition between timber growth and removal in the 
region. This is reflected by timber removals in specific sectors, for 



13 



example; forest growth in the National forest greatly exceeds removals; 
farmers are cutting only about two-thirds of farm growth and; miscellaneous 
private and forest industry owners are harvesting about 80% to 90^ of 
their growth respectively. 

There are, however, undesirable harvest levels occurring in the region 
which may eventually adversely affect forest character or quality. 
Reportedly, the forest industry is seriously overcutting sawtimber 
growth. Similarly, miscellaneous private owners and farmers are cutting 
close to the annual sawtimber growth. Over cutting of sawtimber stock 
appears to be greatest for pine, bay, magnolia and hickory tree species 
suggesting the possibility of future shortages of sawtimber in these 
wood types. Despite the gradual decline in forest acreage in the region, 
the timber inventory is expected to increase during the remainder of the 
century, due to improving forest management practices. 



Forest Management 



Conservation, as applied to forest resources, implies management by man 
to improve the quality of the forest and increase the potential harvest 
beyond what nature would do if left alone. The concept of sustained 
yield is basic to the conservation of forests. In the case of sustained 
yield, the harvest does not exceed the growth; however, the possible 
volume of annual harvest varies with the intensity of management from a 
minimum of natural growth without any management to a maximum limited 
only by technical expertise and assistance in tree growing. Between the 
two extremes there lies an economical level of sustained yield for any 
forest site. The establishment of this optimal level of yield requires 
extensive work by professional foresters to carefully plan and maintain 
a long range program for forest management. 

There are many sound practices that have been developed for the improved 
management and maintenance of timber lands. A few of the more common 
practices include thinning to reduce forest density, pruning lower limbs 
to reduce knots and upgrade the quality of logs, initiation of a selective 
logging or continuous harvesting system and many other methods by which 
experienced foresters can facilitate efficient forest management under 
any system of commercial forestry. 

Problems which must be handled within north central Florida include 
forest regeneration which must occur where timber stocks have been 
seriously depleted, combating mortality of timber through fire, disease, 
and insects, as well as new man-made dangers such as flooding, construction 
and lowering of the water table. Additional problems which may require 
future investigation include forest land taxation, forest conversion to 
pinelands, pollution, the role of the small private land owner in timber 
production, and other potential problems concerning forest management. 



]\k 



Map Preparation 



For the purposes of comparing forest resources to other natural resources 
of north central Florida, it was necessary to categorize forest and other 
vegetation types into six different groups. These categories were 
developed and defined with the assistance of County Foresters from 
the ERTS Satellite Mosaic Map of Florida supplemented with aerial 
photographs and on-site observations. Listed below are the vegetative 
categories selected for definition In order of increasing sensitivity 
to intensive land uses: 

1) Non-vegetated (least sensitivity) 

2) Agriculture and pasture 

3) Pine lands 

k) Upland hardwoods 

5) Lowland hardwoods 

6) Prairie and marsh (highest sensitivity) 

These vegetative types are presented for Illustration and evaluation on 
the map entitled General Vegetation. 



115 



r 

F 



^ 



r 




GENERAL VEGETATION 



□ 



NON VEGETATED 



AGRICULTURE & PASTURE 



TTT 
11)1 

iliiii' 



PINELANDS 



-'v^-^ UPLAND HARDWOODS 






LOWLAND HARDWOODS 



PRAIRE & MARSH 



It97t KILOMETERS 

North Central FKxIda Raglorwl Planning Council 



WILDLIFE RESOURCES 



INTRODUCTI ON 



During the early years of this country wildlife was recognized and appre- 
ciated for the central role it occupied in sustaining life. It provided 
products of commercial value, such as furs, and served as a vital compon- 
ent of the food supply. The role of wildlife has changed over the years, 
but still remains a central component of our outdoor recreation activities. 
Wildlife is becoming recognized as an increasingly important element in 
maintaining our quality of life and contributing to the enrichment of 
modern society. 

Along with forests, fish and wildlife are considered to be renewable re- 
sources, and as such comprise an essential element in outdoor recreation 
activities. Consumptive uses of fisn and wi 1 d 1 i f e incl ude hunting, 
fishing, food, fertilizer, bait and o''her uses. Non-consumptive uses 
of this resource include bird-watching, hiking and nature photography, 
increased interest in non-consumptive uses or the aesthetic appreciation 
of wildlife values has been growing in recent years as a result of an 
expanding environmental awareness of our citizens. 

Fish and wildlife are also important in ways not directly related to 
recreation. Non-recreation concerns include: the relationship of the 
well-being of man relative to his ecosystem; the preservation of endangered 
species; the control of urban and rural pest species; and the biological 
control of aquatic vegetation by fish or Insects. With respect to 
potential effects on man, the condition of the resource is a useful 
indicator of the quality of the environment. For example, a decrease In 
animal species, the death of fish in polluted streams or the loss of 
animals due to habitat deterioration may Illustrate symptoms of environ- 
mental decline. It is apparent that conservation, or the wise use of 
wildlife resources, often requires Intensive management it all species 
are to survive and to continue to proliferate. The acquisition, preser- 
vation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife habitat are essential for 
man's present enjoyment and for the benefit of future generations. 



119 



Wl LDLi FE HAB I TAT 



The wildlife of an area is dependent on many factors, vegetation being 
the most important. Each plant community has a characteristic animal 
community, the combination of which is considered a biological community, 
and an ecosystem is simply defined as the biological community and its 
non-living environment. Biological communities are normally named for 
the more abundant or dominant species, usually a plant. 

In general, plant communities may be subdivided into two vary broad 
categories, upland communities and lowland or wetland communities. 
Upland communities of north-central Florida include sandhills, mixed 
hardwoods and pine, hammocks, and pine flatwoods. Lowland communities 
include swamp forests, wet prairies, salt marshes and submerged lands. 
A brief description of each community along with characteristic animal 
species is provided in following sections. In addition, Appendix 2 
is included to provide further elaboration on wildlife species occurring 
i n the reg ion . 



Sandhill Communities 



Sandhill communities typically occur on well-drained sandy soils and may 
usually be Identified by the typical longleaf pine-turkey oak vegetative 
association. In general, due to the harsh conditions imposed by poor 
soil quality, low moisture and high fire potential, the community has a 
low tree diversity. It possesses a low understory composed of herbaceous 
plants such as wiregrass and yellow fox glove. 

In general, many of the animals found In such areas are burrowers due 
to the often high temperatures and absence of water. Species such as 
indigo snakes, gopher tortoises, desert lizards, ground doves, bobwhites, 
fox squirrels and pocket gophers are cited as typical vertebrae associated 
with the sandhill community. 



flixed Hardwood and Pine Communities 



Mixed hardwood and pine communities are typically found on the clayey 
soils of Madison and Taylor Counties. They represent the southern most 
extension of the southern Piedmont mixed hardwood forest. The natural 
climax vegetation of the community Is characterized by an American beech- 
Southern magnolia-Florida Maple Association along with numerous other 
hardwoods. Animal species vary with the success lonal stage of the forest 



120 



but typically Include broadly adapted species such as cottontails and 
bobwhites as well as the barred owl, red bellied woodpecker, white-tailed 
deer, grey squirrel, shrews, gray fox and cotton mouse. 



Hammock s 



Hammocks, as defined in the Florida Environmentally Endangered Lands Plan, 
are a cluster of broad-leaved trees, often evergreens, usually growing on 
relatively rich soil. They are noted as the climax vegetation of most 
areas of central and peninsular Florida. Characteristic trees in the 
north-central Florida region include live oak, cabbage palm, magnolia, 
laurel oak and American holly. San Felasco hammock in Alachua County is 
a good example of this type of community. Typical animals In the hammock 
community include the spadefoot toad, tufted-tit mouse, great-created 
flycatcher, golden mouse, wood rat and flying squirrel. 

Based upon a recently completed qualitative survey assessing wildlife 
values of Florida's plant communities, the Game and Fresh Water Fish 
Commission has recognized hardwood hammocks as first priority communities. 
Such a designation indicates those commun i t ies most deserving of protection 
based upon estimated wildlife values, scarcity within the watershed and 
endangerment of the plant community (Source 2). 



Pine Flat woods 



Pine flatwoods are by far the dominant plant community in the Gulf coastal 
zones and are widespread throughout the region. Soils are usually sandy 
with a moderate amount of organic materials in the surface layers. The 
great majority of upland areas of Dixie and Taylor Counties are covered 
with pine flatwoods forests. Most of these are effectively managed by 
the large lumbering and pulp industry which owns vast tracts within this 
area. 

In generaly, flatwoods have a low diversity of tree species. Many under- 
story plants common to flatwoods are w i re grass, saw palmetto, wax myrtle, 
mulberry, and fetterbush. Often found within large pine flatwoods forests 
are small cypress ponds, bayheads , and other forest types typical of 
vyetter environments emphasizing the rather poorly developed drainage. 

Pine flatwoods are noted as having fairly numerous and diverse animal 
population. Larger animals such as deer, bear, bobcat, racoon and gray 
fox are commonly found near boundaries between flatv;oods and associated 
forest communities. Other typical animals common to flatwoods include 



121 



the black racer, brown-headed nuthatch, fox squirrel, cotton rat and 
cottontail rab|Dit. Wildlife values can very considerably depending upon 
the degree and type of forest management appl ied. 



Swamp Fo res t s 



Sv/amp forests, or deciduous hardwood swamps, are found bordering rivers 
and basins where the forest floor is saturated or is submerged during 
a portion of each year. Such communities are characterized by hardwoods 
such as black gum, water rupulo, red maple, sweetgum, water oak and 
water hickory. Other typical trees might include the bald cypress and 
cabbage palm. Understory vegetation typically consists of buttonbush, 
wax myrtle, American hornbeam and elderberry. Although swamp forests 
occupy only a relatively small portion of the region, they provide for 
a very wide diversity of plant and animal species. Within the study are 
swamp forests are typically encountered along the flood plains of the 
Suwannee, Stelnhatchee, Santa Fe and Econifina Rivers. 

Animals Inhabiting these areas Include species such as the bobcat, deer, 
turkey, grey squirrel, otter, pileated woodpecker, wood duck, as well as 
numerous other birds, turtles and snakes. In general, the productivity 
of both plant and animal systems in swamp forests Is very high because 
of the diverse habitat, the availability of nutrients, and the periodic 
flooding and drying essential to the maintenance of this system. 



We t Prairie 



Wet prairies and freshwater marshes cover a very limited area in north 
central Florida. They are defined by any grass-sedge-rush community 
occurring In an area where the soil is saturated or covered with water 
two or more months of the year. Paynes Prairie is the most notable 
example of this type of vegetative community in the region but occurrances 
are also noted in western Madison County, and northern Columbia County. 

Prairie communities are generally very productive In wildlife. Numerous 
v/ading birds, water fowl, frogs and other amphibians inhabit such areas. 
Many rare and/or endangered species heavily rely upon this habitat in- 
cluding the wood stork, sandhill crane and Florida round-railed muskrat. 



22 



Salt Marshes 



Salt marshes are plant communities that have developed in. inter-t ida 1 
zones along low energy coasts. Tidal marshes extend along the full length 
of the coast of Dixie and Taylor Counties, broken only by streams and a 
very few areas of beach. In such areas, only a few inches of vertical 
elevation may determine a suitable habitat for a given species or com- 
munity. Salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora often forms an almost 
pure stand as an outer band of the salt marsh where it is exposed to the 
deepest and longest Inundation by salt water during high tide. The black 
rush, Juncus roemerianus is commonly found on slightly higher ground 
in the coastal marshes of Dixie and Taylor Counties. The species 
existing in any one area are usually dependent upon the degree of inundation 
by tides as well as the salinity of the water. 

Salt marshes are of particular importance to Florida. Nutrients from the 
land and sea combine to produce more protein than some of the most inten- 
sively managed farms. Many commercial fish such as the spotted sea 
trout, mullet, redfish and others spend much of their lives in the 
productive wetland areas afforeded by marshes. In addition, crabs, 
oysters, some species of clams, several species of shrimp and other Gulf 
marine life depend on the salt marsh for food, protection and breeding. 
Other animal species which abound In the salt marsh ecosystem include 
birds. Ralls, egrets, gulls, terns, and seaside sparrows are relatively 
common to coastal marshes and depend upon that system for food. In 
addition, the diamond-back terrapin, salt marsh snake, mink otter and 
racoon are also noted as characteristic animals. 



Submerged Lands 



Submerged lands and their communities are those salt water ecosystems 
which merge the coastal marshes at their landward limits and extend 
westward Into the Gulf. Submerged lands are those generally lying beneath 
sea level . 

Generally, the salt water systems along the northwestern Gulf coast con- 
sist of numerous algae and a few species of seagrass. Seaqrasses are 
defined as flowering plants that grow completely submerged in undiluted 
sea water. Although there are about 35 species of seagrasses In the 
world's oceans, only five have been recognized on the continental shelf 
of the eastern Gulf of Mexico. 

Tha lass ia testud inum or turtlegrass Is the most abundant species In this 
portion of the Gulf of Mexico. The other three species which make up 
about 90 percent of the biomas of seagrass beds in order of relative 



23 



abundance include Syringodium filiformis (Manatee grass), Ha lodu I e wr ight i i 
(Shoal grass), and to a much lesser extent, small patches of Ha 1 oph i la 
enge Imann i I . 

V/ith respect to animal species, seagrass plants In general provide food, 
cover, and attachment sites for small crustacean, shellfish and other 
invertebrates as well as fish. Most of the important species in Florida's 
commercial and sport fishery spend a portion of their lives in shallow 
inland and coastal waters. Many species Including oysters, crab, sea 
trout, and pompano spend much of their lives In such areas. In addition, 
a variety of reptiles, water fowl, wading birds and aquatic mammals 
such as the otter and manatee utilize these plants for food or feed upon 
smaller animal species occupying this habitat. It is reported that sea 
turtles and manatees feed on seagrasses as well as do some sea urchins, 
conch, parrot fishes, sturgeon, trigger fish and many others. 

The foregoing description is only a brief sampling of the variety wild- 
life species In the region. A complete list of terrestrial wildlife Is 
quite lengthy; therefore, a representative portion Is provided In Appendix 



WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 



With Increasing population and pollution, the spread of urban areas, 
large scale habitat alteration by man, and increasing numbers of sportmen, 
the quality and quantity of wildlife appears to be diminishing due to 
the limitations Imposed on their numbers and distribution. There is no 
doubt that wildlife resources must be an integral component in any 
resource and development project because wildlife Is a fundamental part 
of the total natural environment. 

There are three basic methods for maintaining wildlife populations. 
These Include: 1) the preservation or improvement of wildlife habitat; 

2) the regul at ion of harvest or complete protection through game laws and; 

3) increasing wildlife stock by artificial means. Of these, the main- 
tenance, development and preservation of habitats Is probably the most 
efficient method to promote wildlife populations. In terms of private 
contribution to this effort the farmer plays a major role In provision 
of habitats as evidenced by the often great number of wildlife that find 
cover on farm areas. 

Game regulations recognize that every habitat has a maximum capacity; 
and when that capacity for a certain game species is overtaxed by too 
large a population, the habitat is damaged by over grazing and the pop- 
ulation starves. Therefore, hunting and fishing must be based on orderly 
harvest methods which must not take place in excess of the biological 
minimum limits which would insure repopulation by that species. 



]2k 



wildlife refuges play an important role in national and state programs to 
save threatened or endangered species of wildlife and to provide a haven 
for others. The Osceola National Forest and the St. Marks National 
Wildlife Refuge represent the federal lands in the region where wildlife 
populations are protected and managed yet maintained for public utili- 
zation. Similarly, state preserves are utilized for the protection and 
propagation of the natural environment and attendent wildlife species. 
In north central Florida, state preserves are represented by Paynes 
Prairie and San Felasco Hammock in Alachua County and Oleno State Park in 
Alachua and Columbia Counties. 

The Florida Freshwater Fish and Game Commission leases or owns many 
widely scattered wildlife management areas throughout the State including 
seven in this region of north central Florida. These management areas 
often receive the heaviest use from sportsmen. In return for compensation 
from the State, leased timber Industry lands receive a low level of wild- 
life management from trained wildlife officers and a degree of favorable 
public relations. There appears to be a distinct need for a mechanism 
whereby Commission biologists can more efficiently interact with owners 
of wildlife management areas to promote Improved wildlife and habitat 
management. Future consideration of this need by appropriate public agencies 
appears warranted. 

In addition to v;ildllfe management areas, the State supervises six fish 
management areas In the region which also receive a degree of professional 
supervision. Table 28 below lists fish and wildlife management areas In 
the region. 

In addltlontoorganl zed State managed programs for fish and wildlife 
management areas, many of the forest Industry firms permit hunting on 
some or all of their holdings. Some of these firms either lease land 
to hunting clubs or allow access to individual hunters for a nominal 
fee. In this way, each company Is In a better position to exercise some 
degree of control over the land than if the public were permitted in- 
discriminate access. Fees received from such uses may then be applied 
toward road maintenance and habitat improvement 

Hunting can certainly be considered one of the most important recreational 
activities in the region and a necessary management tool. Factors that 
influence hunting potential in the region include climate, water, soils, 
habitat availability, type and quality wildlife populations, proximity to 
population centers and rural ownership patterns. In general, three 
categories of wildlife may be defined Including: small game, big game, 
and waterfowl. Big game Include turkey, deer and wild pig; small game 
Include quail, squirrel, rabbit, dove and water fowl. The latter refers 
primarily to the many duck, coot and associated species found In the 
reg ion. 



125 



TABLE 28 
WILDLIFE AND FISH MANAGEMENT AREAS 



FISH MANAGEMENT 


COUNTY 


ACRES 


Governor Hill Lake 


Dixie 


156 


Koon Lake 


Lafayette 


110 


Lake Francis 


Madison 


26 


Suwannee Lake 


Suwannee 


63 


Watertown Lake 


Columbia 


46 


Blue Spring Lake 


Taylor 


80 


WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 


COUNTY 


ACRES 


Auci 1 la 


Taylor 


165,000 


Tide Swamp 


Taylor 


20,000 


Ste inhatchee 


Dixie/Lafayette 


382,000 


Lockloosa 


Alachua 


29,800 


Lake Butler 


B radf ord/ Co 1 umb i a 


109,000 


Osceola 


Col umb ia 


157,200 


Cypress Creek 


Hami 1 ton 


20,000 



Source: Significant Natural Areas in Planning District Three. 

From Table 29, Hunting Potential by County, it may generally be observed 
that rural counties having large tracts of natural woodland have higher 
potentials for big game hunting than those with numerous farms. 
Except perhaps for coastal areas, the region exhibits relativley low 
hunting potential for water fowl due to the lack of suitable habitat. 
Heavily farmed areas usually exhibit better hunting potential for small 
game such as quail and dove which require open fields. 



DETERMINATION OF HABITAT SUITABILITY 



For planning purposes, there Is a need for a wildlife suitability map 
describing those areas which have a high potential or suitability for 
terrestrial wildlife populations. In the absence of other available 
information, it became necessary to prepare a map based upon a combination 
of two of the more important factors which determine the habitat suit- 
ability for wildlife, i.e., vegetation and land use. 

In a general sense, vegetation greatly influences the distribution of 
wildlife by controlling the type of food present and the availability 



126 



TABLE 29 
HUNTING POTENTIAL BY COUNTY 



COUNTY 


WATERFOWL 


BIG GAME 


SMALL GAME 


Alachua 


Low 


High 


Medium 


Bradford 


Med I urn 


Med ium 


Med i um 


Co 1 umbia 


Med i um 


High 


High 


Dixie 


High 


High 


High 


Gi Ichr 1st 


Low 


High 


High 


Hami 1 ton 


Med I um 


High 


High 


Madison 


Med i um 


Low 


Med ium 


Suwannee 


Medium 


Med i um 


High 


Taylor 


High 


High 


Medium 


Un ion 


Medi um 


High 


High 



Source: Northeast Gulf River Basins Cooperative Survey, 1977- 



of suitable cover in a natural environment. Vegetation groups previously 
defined were subjectively placed in order of their suitability for 
wildlife according to their extent and value in the region. A map was 
then prepared showing wildlife suitability in terms of vegetation. 

The second factor to be considered in determining habitat suitability for 
wildlife was Intensity of land use. Because certain land uses greatly 
restrict the number and type of animals that may inhabit an area, they 
are an important element in habitat considerations. Land uses were 
drawn from the general existing land use map of north-central Florida 
and evaluated In terms of wildlife habitat suitability. By superimposing 
these maps, it was possible to prepare a composite wildlife suitability 
map for north central Florida. The value scheme utilized in map pre- 
paration is shown In Table 30. 

The General Wildlife Suitability Map In the text, generally defines 
those areas w!iich by virtue of their vegetation and existing land use 
would favor or restrict the suitability of an area for wildlife. The 
areas which show the least suitability for wildlife habitat certainly do 
not Imply that those areas are barren of wildlife but only indicate that 
a limited number of certain type or species may successfulW utilize those 
areas as habi tat . 

It should also be noted that many small pockets of land with high or low 
habitat values are scattered throughout the region. Due to their Influence 
on diversity, or "edge effect," these small areas of habitat have a value 



27 



TABLE 30 
COMPONENTS OF THE GENERAL WILDLIFE SUITABILITY MAP 







RELATIVE 


VEGETATION 


LAND USE 


SUITABILITY 


Prairie and Marsh 


Lakes and nonforested 
wet lands 


High 


Lowland Hardwoods 






Upland Hardwoods 


Forested areas 




Pine lands 


Agricul ture 




Agriculture and Pasture 


Urban and bu i 1 t-up 




Non-vegetated 


Min ing 


Low 



above their intrinsic scaled value and should be considered of maximum 
importance to the total area of habitat in which they occur. 

In addition, limitation of scale and the generality to which the data 
available allows maps to be presented restricts the detail to which 
suitable wildlife habitat areas may be defined. Therefore, the map should 
not be construed to be all inclusive, but only broadly defines those 
areas of relative wildlife suitability. 



28 




GENERAL WILDLIFE 
SUITABILITY 



m 



i u... i j,- ii -.j i ;n 



LAND USE AND NATURAL SYSTEMS 



I NTRODUCTI ON 



m 



An overview of previous chapters illustrates that our environment is 
composed of a complex set of interdependent processes. Virtually all 
of the natural components of this environment are drawn upon by modern 
an In one way or another to support our way of life. Perhaps the most 
relevant examples of the complexity and diverse value assignments given 
to our resources are reflected in the persistent problems of pollution 
and energy supply. 

it is now clearly recognized that land use decisions must not be made 
entirely within an economic framework. More importantly, such decisions 
must be formulated within the context of the limited physical v.'orld from 
which necessary energy and other resources may be drawn to make human growth 
and development possible. The finite rature of our resources emphasizes 
the need for their consideration and respect in the land use decision 
making process. The basic goal of this chapter then is to bring together 
those natural systems and resources discussed in previous chapters and, 
combined with a consideration of existing land uses and significant natural 
areas, outline a basic evaluation system which may be utilized to 
illustrate relationships between important natural systems in ihe region. 



SIGNIFICANT NATURAL AREAS 



Many kinds of natural areas perform valuable functions essential to the 
environmental quality of the region. Examples include aquifer recharge 
areas, biologically active wetlands, forests, flood plain areas and 
unique natural sites. The preservation and conservation of such areas 
is highly important to the land use planning program and warrants 
attention in any accounting of natural resources. 

Follov^/ing in the steps of the Federal government, the Florida legislature 
has been very progressive in enacting legislation which recognizes the 
value of the State's natural assets. With these tools from which to work, 
State agencies such as the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation 
and the Department of Natural Resources are making progress in recognizing 



13 



the importance of and providing for the protection of natural areas of 
the State. 

The North Central Florida Regional Planning Council has also recognized 
that this Region still has vast acreages of as yet undeveloped and environ- 
mentally valuable land. Because of the Region's predominately rural 
nature, it provides a unique opportunity for sound open space planning. 
Since new avenues for land acquisition and protection have been provided 
by State and Federal legislation, the Council is in some cases required 
or otherwise obliged to assist its member governments and the State in 
planning for areas of recognized environmental value. 

The Council has participated in this endeavor by maintaining the Green 
Plan Inventory of Natural, Historical and Archeolog i cal sites in north 
central Florida. By providing a data base for over 220 significant 
natural sites in the Region, it has provided a foundation for the pre- 
paration of two documents describing the attributes of selected areas of 
unique environmental value. The first document entitlted Areas of Environ- 
mental Concern in Planning District III (1975) described the attributes 
fo twelve (12) selected areas in the region. A second document, a com- 
panion to this study, is entitled Significant Natural Areas in Planning 
District III. It provides an update of previously described areas and 
outlines site attributes and management recommendations for those areas 
selected for study. 

In addition to the identification and description of the sixteen (16) 
selected sites of environmental value, the latter report also contains a 
tabulation of all natural sites recognized by the Green Plan Inventory 
in north central Florida. A representative overview of State and Federal 
programs which provide for the acquisition or protection of environmentally 
valuable lands is included as well as a table outlining established or 
otherwise recognized areas in the Region such as national forests, 
v/ildlife refuges and state parks. 

The map included herein entitled Significant Natural Areas, draws upon 
the report entitled Significant Natural Areas and the Green Plan Inventory 
to provide a visual representation of the occurance of important natural 
areas in the Region. The utilization of this map in the preparation of 
a composite map of natural resources is assured by the high relative 
values represented by the character, nature and occurance of such areas 
in the Region. 



EXISTING LAND USE 



It is evident that the intensity to which man modifies or utilizes the 
land and its resources affects the integrity of almost every natural system 
in and around that land. Therefore, how the land is utilized determines 



32 




SIGNIFICANT 
NATURAL AREAS 



SITE LIST 

1 SUWANNEE RIVER 

2 WITHLACOOCHEE RIVER 

3 PINHOOK SWAMP 

4 SANTA FE HEADWATERS 

5 AUCILLA RIVER SINK 

6 TIDE SWAMP 

7 GULF COASTAL MARSH 

8 HIXTOWN SWAMP 

9 SANTA FE RIVER 

10 OSCEOLA NATIONAL FOREST 

11 PAYNES PRAIRIE STATE PRESERVE 

12 SAN FELASCO HAMMOCK 

13 ICHETUCKNEE SPRINGS STATE PARK 

14 CALIFORNIA SWAMP 

15 AUSTIN CAREY MEMORIAL FOREST 



• NATURAL 
A HISTORIC 
□ ARCHEOLOGICAL 



yiB76 KILOMETERS 

North Ccnifal Florida Rcgiorial Planning Council 



to a large extent the viability of natural systems which exist In any 
area. Because this viability usually depends upon the intensity of the 
activity, a map was prepared for this report representing broad inten- 
sities of existing land uses. 

Intensity of land use is related to all other natural resources by 
limiting or modifying their occurrence or accessibility. Therefore, for 
purposes of illustration and comparison with natural systems, an existing 
land use map of the Region is included with this report. The Inclusion 
of this map Is a valuable aid In the realistic assessment of the impact of 
human modifications to the land In the overall sense of human system 
potent la 1 s . 

The existing land use map was generalized from land use and land cover 
maps prepared from remote sensor data collected during 1972 and compiled 
for the Florida Division of State Planning by the U.S. Geological Survey 
in 1976. To facilitate regional comparisons land uses were categorized 
according to relative intensity of land use. From the map legend, It 
may be observed that lakes, reservoirs and non-forested wetlands were 
noted as having the least Intensive uses while urban lands represent 
highest Intensity of land use by constituting v^/hat Is essentially an 
irretrievable committment of resources and land utilization. 



COMPARISON OF NATURAL SYSTEMS 



One of the primary objectives of this report is to provide a method to 
facilitate the comparison and evaluation of the Interactions between, or 
sum total of, the more important natural resources and environmental 
systems In north central Florida. As described In the introduction, a 
modified "McHarg" method of superimposing clear acetate overlays was 
employed to produce a composite map of natural resources. Those in- 
dividual maps found In the text and utilized for the composite map 
include: geology, recharge, 100 year flood plain, rock and mineral 
resources, soil suitability for community development, soil suitability 
for agriculture, wetlands, vegetation, wildlife, land use and significant 
natural areas. By virtue of the varying pattern intensities on each of 
these individual maps four groups of pattern intensities are readily 
distinguished on the overlay composite. 

The four groups represented on the composite map Illustrate, by Increasing 
pattern density, those areas with Increasing relative limitations to 
development. This comparison is relative only to those limitations 
imposed by natural systems and does not include consideration of such 
things as the availability of public utilities, transportation networks, 
energy constraints or other manmade modifications of the environment. 

The darkest patterns reoresent areas wh i ch might best be considered 



35 



preservation areas in the interest of maintaining the best long-term 
environmental quality. Intermediate shaded areas suggest localities 
which might best be served by a conservation appraoch to land use planning 
and regulation. 

The lightest areas do not imply that there are no environmental consider- 
ations to be made in such areas. They simply suggest that, due to the 
relatively high degree of existing manmade modifications, such as urban 
or industrial development, natural systems are not generally as sensitive 
to change. There may, however, be important environmental considerations 
in lightly shaded areas as exemplified by those beneficial attributes of 
natural systems discussed In the chapter on climate. 

The composite map does not show where development may take place in the 
region. Modern technology and building techniques could place development 
almost anywhere. However, the composite map can be considered a general 
guide for land use planning to show where development would have the least 
impact on natural systems and similarly, where costs of devevelopment would 
be least based upon environmental considerations. The composite map is 
Included only as a broad overview of resources, illustrated by increasing 
pattern Intensity natural values and sensitivity to change. The composite 
map will be subject to continued evaluation and interpretation 



From comparisons between individual resource maps contained In this study, 
certain interrelationships become visually apparent. These relationships 
are important to land use planning because they Illustrate the Inter- 
dependence of natural systems, Identify points of friction between natural 
and manmade systems. These relationships also provide a perspective of 
the value of these systems when defining quality of life. Such inter- 
relationships are readily evidenced by the vegetation, soils and geology 
maps which, when combined, illustrate their determinant role In shaping 
the distribution and value of more complex natural systems. Trends 
evident from these resource maps clearly define major land resource areas 
of the region. Such trends are most evident along stream margins and 
distinct physiographic regions such as the coastal lowlands and the 
highlands areas in the north and eastern portions of the region. A number 
of additional complementary or conflicting resource comparisons may be 
made to suit the needs of the reader Illustrating various degrees of land 
use potent la 1 . 

Many problems or issues take on special significance when natural resource 
or other considerations transcend political boundaries. The information 
presented in this study identifies some old and well known issues as 
well as some new or potential considerations which will require combined 
attention and cooperation between several local governments. 

Potential issues common to all governmental jurisdictions in north cen- 
tral Florida will certainly include the uses of natural resources. Cooper- 
ation will be required to ascertain their use, potential impacts, economics, 
and to reach agreement on greatly differing value assessments for each 



36 




EXISTING LAND USE 



Tf- 



Increasing vySiv^" 
Intensity \^-u(.'^ 



LAKES, RESERVOIRS AND 
NON-FORESTED WETLANDS 



FORESTED LAND 



AGRICULTURAL LAND 






MILES 

llVtt KILOMETERS 

North Central Ftofida Regional Planning Council 



MINING 



URBAN, INSTITUTIONS, 
AND BUILT-UP LAND 



resource. Of particular concern may be the use and disposition of lands 
suitable for phosphate mining. Similar needs for land use decisions will 
occur in and around areas of high environmental value and, in particular, 
revolving around the ultimate management of the Suwannee River and Its 
notable resources. 

The significance of natural resources to our way and quality of life is 
perhaps best emphasized by reference to the much publicized energy crisis. 
Problems concerning the availability of energy resources promise to 
persist through the forseeable future and cause profound changes In 
modern lifestyles. Realistic appraisals of future changes can anticipate 
significant alterations In agricultural practices, urban growth and 
development, transportation and many other energy dependent activities. 
As more information becomes available concerning the limitations and 
options mandated by declining energy reserves, more emphasis on this 
resource element will be essential to strengthen land use planning 
efforts . 

Public recognition of resource limitations, in particular, concerning the 
availability of potable water and energy resources, appear certain to 
assure an increasing degree of Importance attributed to natural resources 
In the land use decision making process. Future years appear certain to 
require a more intimate relationship between our citizens and their 
environment. There remains a need, therefore, for a continuing effort 
on the part of public agencies, specifically the North Central Florida 
Regional Planning Council, to broaden public awareness of environmental 
attributes of the region. 



39 



;i»7i KILOMETERS 

North Central Florida Rogiorul Plannitig Council 




COMPOSITE MAP 
OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 



I 



Increasing 

Sensitivity to 

Development 

4. 



□ 
□ 



GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND POLICIES 



NATURAL RESOURCES: GENERAL 



Goal: Support the optimal use of the Region's resources, prevent their 
further degredation and rectify past damage. 

Object i ve : 

1. Plan for and promote the wise use of both renewable and non- 
renewable natural resources. 

2. Foster the reasonable development of human benefits obtainable 
from the natural environment. 

3. Disseminate information to local governments and the general 
public about the elements of the natural and man-made environ- 
ment, their interrelationships and major problem and opportun- 
ities they present to community and regional development. 

k. Provide leadership and a workable strategy for the efficient 
management of the Region's natural resources. 

5. Promote responsible development within the tolerances of natura 
systems . 

6. -Encourage the preservation of the Region's important open 

spaces . 

Po I i c ies : 

To incorporate elements of resource menagement into all plans and 
programs . 



ROCK AND MINERAL RESOURCES 



Goal s : 

1. To conserve and provide for the wise management of rock and 
mineral resources. 

2. To insure that land reclamation Is accomplished in a manner 
compatible with the natural environment. 

Obj ect i ve : 

To plan for and guide the mining and utilization and mineral re- 
sources tempered by a consideration of the balance between long 



^3 



term national, state and regional needs as well as regional 
environmental and social cost. 



Pol icies 



1. To promote a greater degree of land reclamation in mining 
areas than that required by current state regulations. 

2. Encourage planned land use in areas to be strip mined, 

3. Encourage local governments to enact mining and reclamation 
ordinances and assist in their formulation upon request. 

k. To encourage the use of under utilized renewable resources 

over finite resources and encourage the recycling of resources 

5. Endorse and encourage the implementation of more efficient 
mining techniques. 



WATER RESOURCES 



Goal s : 

1. Support the attainment of "swimable and fishable" waters 
throughout the Region by I985 consistent with national 
goals as expressed in PL 92-500. 

2. Assist in the protection and management of the surface and 
ground waters of the Region to insure the availability of 
an adequate quantity and quality of water to all users. 

3. Encourage the recognition of and respect for the benefits 
afforded and the limitations imposed by coastal marshes, 
swamps, flood plains and other wetland areas. 

Object ives : 

1. To incorporate state and federal environmental policies and 
standards in the regional plans and programs involving the 
management and protection of water resources. 

2. To control growth in recharge areas so that normal recharge 
functions will not be impaired. 

3. To pursue programs, such as '208' areawide waste water manage- 
ment planning, which will afford the region mechanisms for 
water quality management. 

k. To plan for the rational development or non-development of 
sensitive wetland areas. 



Pol i c ies 



1. To continue to seek planning designation for this Council 
and Planning District III and work for the subsequent imple- 
mentation of a '208' areawide waste water management plan 
for the region. 

2. To plan for modifications to the natural hydrologic conditions 
by structural improvements only when determined that such 
activity is In the best long term public interest. 



]kk 



3. Discourage use of septic tanks, fertilizer, pesticides, and 
other contaminants on land adjacent to estuaries, coastal 
marshes, wetlands, lakes or streams. 

k. Encourage waste water reuse and renovation. 

5. Plan for urban growth in concert with local water availability. 

6. Support water management district efforts in planning for 
long range water resource allocation. 

7. Carefully plan and distribute growth around lakes, rivers, 

and prime recharge areas in order to insure that such develop- 
ment is compatible with hydrologic systems. 



VEGETATION 
(Forestry and Agriculture) 



Goa 1 s : 

1. Encourage the maintenance of integrity of prime agriculture 
lands and alleviate the threat of loss of these areas. 

2. Assist in the conservation of lands best suited to agricultural 
uses in the region. 

3. Support the management of forest resources in a manner compat- 
ible with land capabilities. 

Object i ves : 

1. Promote an awareness of agricultural and forest management 
problems or opportunities. 

2. Prevent or minimize loss of agricultural lands to suburban 
development . 

3. Help minimize the potential adverse impacts that intensively 
managed agriculture lands may have on adjacent ecosystems. 



Pol icies 



1. Support forest management programs which promote mixed use 
and esthetics and favors clear-cutting on a small tract basis 
on ly . 

2. Discourage clear-cutting along lakes and streams which could 
cause erosion problems and endorse selective harvesting 

i n sens i t i ve areas. 

3. Discourage site preparation and building practices that un- 
necessarily remove trees and natural ground cover. 

h. Encourage and plan for greater efficiency and conservation in 
agricultural practices. 



H5 



so I LS 



Goal: Give due consideration to soil potentials or limitations in the 
development and use of land. 

Object i ve : 

Assist in the prevent Ion of undue loss of valuable soils due to 
erosion caused by agricultural mismanagement, development abuses 
and other human activities. 

Pol Ic ies : 

1. When major land alterations become necessary, wherever pos- 
sible, recommend that exposed soils be expeditiously stabilized 
and restored. 

2. Incorporate consideration of soil potentials and limitations 
in land use planning and review processes. 

3. Encourage preparation of modern soil surveys In all counties 
in the region. 



TOPOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE 



Goa 1 s : 

1. Insure that the regional planning process considers the 
primary determinants of climate quality as viable elements 
of resource management and site development. 

2. In planning for future land use, insure the consideration o' 
topography as It relates to distinct land use potentials, 
I.e., coastal zone, hurricane flood zone, flood plain or 
areas excessively steep or flat in nature. 

Object Ives : 

1. Encourage energy conservation through proper site planning. 

2. Discourage development in hazardous areas and require speci- 
fic modifications adapting development to unique conditions 



Pol i cles 



1. Encourage on site energy conservation including site planning, 
optimum use of natural vegetation, efficient structural 
designs, solar heating and cooling. 

2. Encourage development to take advantage of slope and prevailing 
winds to minimize pollution, maximize the benefits of climate, 
and achieve economy in construction. 



^6 



Wl LDL I FE RESOURCES 



Goa Is: 

1. Provide for the highest and most practical degree of 
management for all game species. 

2. Provide for the conservation of all wildlife and preser- 
vation of those species recognized as rare and/or 
endangered . 

Objectives: 

1. Plan for and promote the conservation of wildlife as an 
essential element of the ecological components in the natural 
system. 

2. Maintain and preserve the natural complexity and stability 
of the region's interacting natural systems. 

Pol Ic les : 

1. Encourage the protection and conserve t ion of important wild- 
life habitat of the region through state and federal programs 

2. Plan for the retention of important wildlife "islands" or 
communities in and around urban centers. 

3. Enhance the recognition of wildlife values through environ- 
mental planning projects. 

k. Promote the concept of wildlife as an essential element of 
outdoor recreation activities. 



AREAS OF ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE 



Goal: Protect and preserve recognized areas of high natural environmenta 
values, such as unique coastal marshes, springs, hammocks and 
geological features. 

Object i ve : 

Participate with state and federal agencies in the identification 
or rate or unique or natural sites. 



Pol icies 



1. Endorse the preservation or conservation of important unique 
natural or environmental areas through programs such as the 
Florida Environmentally Endangered Lands Program. 

2. Discourage development adjacent to sensitive natural areas 
such as coastal marshes unless development can be demonstrated 
to have Insignificant adverse Impacts or there Is overriding 
pub lie i nteres t . 



U7 



3. Support public use of wilderness areas only to the extent 

compatible with the purpose of the area, 
k. Support the acquisition or management of selected natural 

areas by state, federal or local governments. 
5. Work toward refinements in environmental assessment and planning 

capabilities to improve project evaluations for those activities 

having long term or cumulative impacts upon the physical 

envi ronment. 



^48 



APPENDICES 



hS 



APPEMOI X I 
REPRESENTATIVE LIST OF VEGETATION IN 
NORTH CENTRAL FLORI DA 



FERNS AND FERN ALLIES 

COMMON NAME 

Ebony Spleenwort 
Lady Fern 
Mosquito Fern 
Hoi ly Fern 
Florida Shield Fern 
Dimorphic Chain Fern 
Clubmoss 
Boston Fern 
Cinnamon Fern 
Royal Fern 
Resurrection Fern 
Bracken Fern 
Ladder-brake Fern 
Water Spangles 
Sp i kemoss 
Wood Fern 
Chain Fern 



VINES 

COMMON NAME 

Pepper Vine 

Cross Vine 

Supplejack, Rattan Vine 

Cat-claw Vine 

Trumpet Vine 

Dodder 

Wild Hydrangea 

Wild Yam 

Jel low Jessami ne 

Japanese Honeysuckle 

Coral Honeysuckle 

CI imb i ng Hamp V i ne 

Virginia Creeper 

Maypops 

Kudzu Vine 

Poi son- i vy 

Cherokee Rose 

Greenbr i er 

Catbr i er 



VINES (CONTINUED) 

Bamboo-brier 
Wild Sarsapari 1 la 
Summer Grape 
Muscadine 
Frost Grape 
Wisteria 



TREES 

COMMON NAME 
Rich Hammocks 

Spruce, pine, smooth-bark pine, 

cedar pine 
Southern red-cedar 
Cabbage palmetto 
Wax myrtle 
Pignut hickory 

Bluebeech, American hornbeam 
Eastern hop-hornbeam, ironwood, 

American hop-hornbeam 
Ashe chinquapin, coastal chinquapin 
Laurel oak 
V/ater oak 

Basket oak, cow oak, swamp-chestnut oak 
Shumard oak 
Live oak 

Sugarberry, Hackberry 
Florida elm 
Red mulberry 

Southern magnolia, bullbay 
\Vi tch-hazel 
Sweetgum, red gum 
Parsley haw 
May haw, apple haw 
Green haw 

Carolina laurel cherry 
Black cherry 
Red bud 

Winged sumac, shining sumac 
Poison sumac 
Possum haw 



151 



APPENDIX I - Continued 



TREES (CONTINUED) 



TREES (CONTINUED) 



Amer i can hoi ly 

Yaupon 

Florida maple, Southern sugar maple 

Boxel der 

Red maple 

Red buckeye 

Basswood, Linden 

Loblol ly-bay 

Devi 1 s-walking-st i ck 

Stiff cornel dogwood 

Sparkleberry 

Pers immon 

Sweetleaf, horse-sugar 

01 d-mans-beard, fringe-tree 

Swamp ash, Florida ash 

Green ash 

Wild-olive, devilwood 



Ferti 1 e Uplands 



Florida haw, . Jacksonv i 1 1 e haw 

Southern crab apple 

Rusty blackhaw 

Chickasaw plum 

Black cherry 

Hercules-club, prickly-ash 

Winged sumac, shining sumac 

Carol ina hoi ly 

American hoi ly 

Yaupon 

Red buckeye 

Florida soapberry, wild china-tree 

Basswood, linden, wahoo 

Staggerbush 

Sparkleberry 

False buckthorn, gum bumelia 

Pers immon 

Whi te ash 

Wild-olive, devilwood 



Shortleaf pine 

Loblolly pine, oldfield pine 

Southern red cedar 

Waxmyrtle, Southern bayberry 

Pignut hickory 

Mockernut hickory, white hickory 

Southern red oak, Spanish oak 

Post oak 

Eastern hop-hornbeam, i ronwood , 

American hop-hornbeam 
Wh i te oak 
Bluff oak 
Laurel oak 
Blackjack oak 
Water oak 
Shumard oak 
Live oak 

Sugarberry, hackberry 
Winged elm, cork elm 
Red mulberry 

Southern magnolia, bullbav 
Redbay 
Sassaf rass 
Swee tgum 
Dwarf haw, one- flowered haw 



Ponds 

Slash pine, yellow slash 

Pond- cypress 

Carolina willow, coastal plain willos 

Waxmyrt 1 e 

Sweetbay, white bay, sweetbay 

magnol ia 
May haw, apple haw, shining haw 
Green haw 
Honey locust 
Poison sumac 

Large gallberry, sweet gallberry 
Swamp cyrilla, titi, he-huckleberry 
Myrt le- leaved holly, myrtle dahoon 
Red maple 

Water tupelo, cotton gum 
Swamp tupelo, blackgum 
Ogeechee tupelo, Ogeechee- 1 ime 
Carolina ash, water ash, swamp ash 
Button bush 



52 



APPENDIX I - Continued 



TREES (CONTIMUED) 



Sand Ridge and Dunes 

Sand pine 

Long leaf pine 

Ashe chinquapin, coastal chinquapin 

Wh i te oak 

Chapman oak 

Sand- 1 i ve oak 

Bluejack oak, upland willow oak 

Turkey oak, sand blackjack 

Southern red oak, Spanish oak 

Blackjack oak 

Sand-post oak 

Myrtle oak 

Running oak 

Paw paw 

Hercules club, prickly-ash 

Carol i na hoi ly 

Yaupon 

Staggerbush 

Pers immon 



Swamps 

Slash pine, yellow slash 

Pond-cypress 

Swamp tupelo, blackgum 

Sweetbay 

Little-leaf titi, little-leaf 

cyr i 1 la 
Myrtle dahoon , My rt 1 e- 1 eaved holly 
Waxmyrtle, Southern bayberry 
Water hickory, swamp hickory 
Hazel alder 
Water oak 

Yellow-poplar, tulip-tree 
Sweetbay, white bay, sweetbay 

magnol i a 
Swampbay 

Winged sumac, shining sumac 
Poison sumac 

Sv-;amp cyrilla, titi, he-huckleberry 
Dahoon ho 1 1 y 
Large gallberry, sv-^eet gallberry 



TREES (CONTINUED) 

Red maple 

Water tupelo, cotton gum 

Ogeechee tupelo, Ogeechee- 1 ime 

Stiffcornel dogwood 

American snowbel 1 , storax 

Carolina ash, water ash, swamp ash 

Swamp ash, Florida ash 

Green ash 

Buttonbush 

Pickneya, maidens blushes 

Possonhaw viburnum 



Riverbanks 



Bal d-cypress 

Water tupelo 

Southern red cedar 

Carolina willow, coastal plain willow 

Black wi 1 low 

Waxmyrtle, Southern bayberry 

Water hickory, swamp hickory 

Hazel alder 

River b i rch 

Over-cup oak 

Water oak 

Wi 1 low oak 

Basket oak, cow oak, swamp-chestnut oak 

Live oak 

Suggarberry, hackberry 

Planer tree, water elm 

Florida elm 

Red mulberry 

Yellow poplar, tulip-tree 

Southern magnolia, bullbay 

Sweetgum-red gum 

Red haw, sma 1 1 -f ru i ted thorn 

May haw, apple haw, shining haw 

Honey- locust 

Winged sumac, shining sumac 

Swamp cyrilla, titi, he- huCK 1 eber rv 

Red maple 

Ogeechee tupelo, ogeechee- 1 Ime 

Stiff cornel dogwood 

Pers immon 

Little si 1 verbe 1 1 



153 



APPENDIX I - Continued 



TREES (CONTINUED) 



HERBS (CONTINUED] 



01 d-mans-beard , fringe-tree 
Wild-olive, devilwood 
Wa 1 ten v i burnum 



HERBS 

COMMON NAME 

Shy- 1 eaves 

Ye 1 low Col i croot 

Wh I te Col i croot 

Wild On ion 

Al 1 igator Weed 

P igweed 

Thorny Pigweed 

Ragweed 

Broomsedge 

Marsh Parsley 

White Prickly Poppy 

Yellow Prickly Poppy 

Green Dragon 

Jack- I n-the-pul pi t 

WI re Grass 

Swi ten Cane 

Mi 1 kweed 

Butterfly Weed 

Fa 1 se-foxg love 

Fa 1 se I nd i go 

Begon ia 

Green-eyes 

Spanish Lettles 

Rayless Goldenrod 

False Nettle 

Spi derl ings 

Fanwort 

I ndi an Planta in 

Sea-rocket 

Grass-pink Orchid 

Wine Cups 

Baybean 

Canna 

Shepherd ' s Purse 

B i tter-cress 

Sedge 



Partridge Pea 

S i cklepod 

Sand-spur 

Butterfly Pea 

Mouse-eared Chickweed 

Coota i 1 

Wild Chervil 

Sun-bonnets 

Lamb' s Quarters 

Water Hemlock 

Horrid Thistle 

Th i s 1 1 e 

Saw-grass 

V i rg i n ' s Bower 

Butterfly Pea 

Treadsof t 1y 

Day flower 

Horseweed 

Rabbi t Bel Is 

Rattle Box 

Croton 

Mi 1 kweed V ine 

Sedge 

Tansy Mustard 

Tick Clover 

Begger ' s Ti cks 

Wh i te-top Sedge 

Buttonweed 

Sa 1 1 Grass 

Sandew 

Water Hyacinth 

Spi ke-rush 

El ephant ' s Foot 

Green Fly Orchid 

Fi reweed 

Daisy Fleabane 

Bog Button 

Wild Buckwheat 

Button Snakeroot 

Cherokee Bean 

Dog Fennel 

Spurge 

Cot tonweed 

Indian Blankets 

Mi 1 k-pea 

Bedstraw 



15^ 



APPENDIX I - Continued 



HERBS (CONTINUED) 



HERBS (CONTINUED) 



Cranesb i 1 1 

Stand i ng-cypress 

Rabbit Tobacco 

Bachelor's Button 

Hedge Hyssop 

Bi tter Weed 

Sneeze-weed 

Rockrose 

Sunf lower 

Coast Sunflower 

Hel iotrope 

S i I ver Sword 

Wol ly Golden Aster 

Camphor Plant 

Rose Ma 1 low 

Hawkweed 

Fairy Footprints 

Marsh Pennywort 

St. John' s V/ort 

Pineweed, Orange Glass 

Dwarf St. John's Wort 

Yel low Star Grass 

Morning Glory 

Scarlet Morning Glory 

Man-of-the-earth 

Ra i 1 road Vi ne 

Cypress Vine 

Wi Id Iris 

Rush 

Black Rush 

Seashore Ma 1 low 

Dwarf Dande 1 Ion 

Red root 

Wild Lettuce 

Henbi t 

Pepper Grass 

Pin Weed 

Duckvjeed 

Bush-c 1 over 

B 1 azi ng Star 

Frog' s-bi t 

Sea Lavender 

Toad-f lax 

Match-heads 

Flowering Straws 

Looses t r i f e 



Barbara's Buttons 

Bog Moss 

Hop Clover 

Sweet Clover 

Creeping Cucumber 

Partridge Perry 

Indian Chick-weed 

Horse Mint 

Indian Pipes 

Parrot Feather 

Watercress 

Yel low Lotus 

Spatter-dock 

Water-1 i ly 

Water-bananas 

Evening Primrose 

Wood Grass 

Golden Club 

Yel low Wood Sorrel 

Violet Sour-grass 

Water Dropwort 

Ma iden-cane 

Panic Grasses 

Pel 1 i tory 

Wh i t low-wort 

Bahia Grass 

Beard-tongue 

Roadside Phlox 

Ground-cherr ies 

Galse Dragon-head 

Pokeweed 

Blue-flowered Butterwort 

Yel low- flowered Butterwort 

Sma 1 1 -f lowered Butterwort 

Water- lettuce 

Planta in 

Marsh-f leabane 

Rose Pogonia Orchid 

Pa inted- 1 eaf 

Jo i ntweed 

Sma r tweed 

Leaf-cup 

P i eke re 1 -v/eed 

Portulaca 

Lanceolate Pondweed 

Grass- leaf Pondweed 



55 



APPENDIX I - Continued 



HERBS (CONTINUED) 



HERBS (CONTINUED) 



Ovate- leaf Pondweed 

Merma i d-weed 

Scurf-pea 

Bl ack-root 

Mock B i shop' s-weed 

Fa I se Dandel ion 

Wi Id Radish 

Meadow-beauty 

Beak Rushes 

Baby Petter 

Black-eyed Susan 

Dock 

Narrow- 1 eafed Arrowroot 

Arrowroot 

Glass-wort 

Lyre-leaf Sage 

Water-p impernel 

Snakeroot 

Hooded Pitcherplant 

Li zard-ta i 1 

Sens i t ive-br ier 

Wool -grass 

Bu 1 rush 

Skul 1 cap 

But terv/eed 

Wh i te-top Aster 

Sea-purs 1 ane 

Foxtai 1 Grass 

Sleepy Catchfly 

Blue-eyed Grass 

Nightshade 

Gol denrod 

Bur-reed 

Cord Grass 

Venus' Looking-glass 

Duck-weed 

Smut-grass 

Florida Betony 

Ch i ck-weed 

Queen' s-root 

Wi 1 d-bean 



Hoary-pea 

Span ish-moss 

Sp i derwort 

C lover 

Dutch White Clover 

Deer ' s Tongue 

Cattail 

Sea-oats 

Bladderwort 

Moth Mul lei n 

Verbena 

Narrow- leaf ed i ronweed 

I ronweed 

Veron lea 

Vetch 

Periwinkle 

Florida Violet 

Lance-leaved Violet 

Seven-lobed Violet 

Walter's Violet 

Yel low-eyed Grass 

Zephyr Lily 



Source: Local Flora by Dana G. Griffin, III, Department of Botany, 
University of Florida, and Florida Cooperative Extension 
Service, I FAS , University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 
Mr. Mike Bordyn , Alachua County Forester 



56 



APPENDIX 2 
REPRESENTATIVE LIST OF WILDLIFE 
IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA 



SPEC I ES 



BIRDS 

Wi 1 d Turkey 

Wood Duck 

Horned Grebe 

Double-Crested Cormanant 

Great Blue Heron 

Louisiana Heron 

Snowy Egret 

Ye 1 low- Crowned Night Heron 

Least Bittern 

White Ibis 

Snow Goose 

Ma Hard 

Black Duck 

Pintai 1 

Blue-Winged Teal 

Shovler 

Redhead 

Lesser Scaud 

Buff lehead 

Red-Breasted Merganser 

Turkey Vul ture 

Sv/a 1 low-Ta i 1 ed Kite 

Sharped Shinned Hawk 

Red-Shouldered Hawk 

Broad-Winged Hawk 

Kestrel 

Kimpk i n 

Vi rg i n ia Ra i 1 

Purple Gal 1 inule 

American Coot 

American Golden Plover 

Common Snipe 

Spotted Sandpiper 

Greater Yellowlegs 

Pectoral Sandpiper 

Least Sandpiper 

Black-Necked Stilt 

Ring-Bi I led Gul 1 

Laugh i ng Gu 1 1 

Forrester ' s Tern 

Common Tern 

Black Skimmer 

Mourn i ng Dove 

Yellow-Billed Cuckoo 



BIRDS (CONTINUED) 

Barn Owl 

Great Horned Owl 

Burrowing Owl 

Whi p-Poor-wi 1 1 

Chimney Swift 

Bobwhi te Qua i 1 

Common Loon 

Pied-Bi 1 led Grebe 

Anh inga 

Great Egret 

Little Blue Heron 

Cattle Egret 

Black-Drowned Night Heron 

American Bittern 

Glossy Ibis 

Fulvus Tree Duck 

Mottled Duck 

Gadwal 1 

treen-Winaed Teal 

American Widgeon 

Ring-Necked Duck 

Canvasback 

Common Goldeneye 

Ruddy Duck 

Hooded Merganser 

Black Vul ture 

Mi ss i ss ippi KI te 

Cooper ' s Hawk 

Red-Tai led Hawk 

Marsh Hawk 

Mer 1 in 

Ki ng Ra i 1 

Sora 

Common Ga 1 1 I nul e 

Ki 1 Ideer 

Woodcock 

Upland Sandpiper 

Solitary Sandpiper 

Lesser Yel low 1 egs 

Wh I te- Rump 1 ed Sandpiper 

Dowitcher Sp. 

Herr I ng Gull 

Bonapartes Gu 1 1 

Black Tern 



157 



APPENDIX 2 - Continued 



BIRDS (CONTINUED) 



BIRDS (CONTINUED) 



Rock Dove 

Ground Dove 

Black-Bi 1 led Cuckoo 

Screech Owl 

Barred Owl 

Chuck-Wi 1 1 is-Widow 

Common Night Hawk 

Bel ted Kingfisher 

Common Fl i cker 

Ruby-Throated Hummingbird 

Pileated Woodpecker 

Red-Headed Woodpecker 

Hairy Woodpecker 

Great Crested Fly Catcher 

Arcadian Flycatcher 

Tree Swal low 

Barn Swa 1 low 

Bank Swa 1 low 

Blue Jay 

Fish Crow 

Tufted Ti tmouse 

Brown Creeper 

Winter Wren 

Long-Billed Marsh Wren 

Mocki ngb i rd 

Brown Thrasher 

Hermi t Thrush 

Gray-Checked Thrush 

Eastern Bluebird 

Golden-Crowned Kinglet 

Water Pipit 

Loggerhead Skrike 

Wh i te-Eyed Vi reo 

Sol iatry V i reo 

Black & Whi te Warbler 

Worm-Eating Warbler 

Blue -Winged Warbler 

Orange-Crowned Warbler 

Ye I low Warbler 

Cape May Warbler 

Yel low-Rumped Warbler 

Yellow-Throated Warbler 

Black Pol 1 Warbler 

Palm Warbler 

Northern Waterthrush 

Kentucky Warbler 



Hooded Warbler 
House Sparrow 
Eastern Meadowlark 
Orchard Oriole 
Rusty Blackbird 
Bloat-Tailed Grackle 
Brown-Headed Cowbird 
Summer Tanager 
Rose-Brested Grosbeak 
Indigo Bunting 
Dicks issel 
Pi ne Siskin 
Rufous-Sided Towhee 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Backman's Sparrow 
Chi ppi ng Sparrow 
White-Crowned Sparrow 
Fox Sparrow 
Song Sparrow 
Red-Bellied Woodpecker 
Yel low-Bel 1 i ed Sapsucker 
Downy Woodpecker 
Eastern Kingbird 
Eastern Phoebe 
Eastern V/ood Pewee 
Rough-Winged Swallow 
Cliff Swal low 
Purple Martin 
Common Crow 
Carol ina Ch Ickadee 
Brown-Headed Nuthatch 
White-Breasted Nuthatch 
House Wren 
Ca rol i na Wren 
Short-Billed Marsh Wren 
Gray Catbird 
Wood Thrush 
Swa inson' s Thrush 
Veery 

Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher 
Ruby-Crowned Kinglet 
Cedar Waxwing 
Star 1 i ng 

Yellow-Throated Warbler 
Red-Eyed Vireo 
Prothonotary Warbler 



158 



APPENDIX 2 - Continued 



BIRDS (CONTINUED) 

Golden-Winged V/arbler 

Tennessee Warbler 

Parula Warbler 

Magnol ia Warbl er 

Black-Throated Blue Warbler 

Blackburnian Warbler 

Chestnut-Sided Warbler 

Pra i rie Warbler 

Ovenbi rd 

Louisiana Thrush 

Common Yellow Throat 

American Redstart 

Bobol ink 

Red-Winged Blackbird 

Northern Oriole 

Brewers Blackbird 

Common Crackle 

Scarlet Tanager 

Card ina 1 

Blue Grosbeak 

Painted Bunting 

Purple Finch 

American Goldfinch 

Savannah Sparrow 

Vesper Sparrow 

Dark-Eyed Junco 

Field Sparrow 

White-Throated Sparrow 

Swamp Sparrow 



MAMMALS (CONTINUED) 

Normay Rat 

Grey Fox 

Bobcat 

Opossum 

Shortta i led Shrew 

Mississippi Mytosis (Bat) 

Least Shrew 

Oldfield Mouse 

Florida Mouse 

Wi Id Hog 

Fox Squirrel 

Southern Picket Gopher 

Cotton Mouse 

Cotton Rat 

Eastern Cottontail Rabbit 

HIspIs Cotton Rat 

Nine Banded Armadillo 

House Mouse 

Striped Skunk 

Florida Black Bear 

Florida Otter 

Eastern Mole 

Semi no Id Bat 

Big-Eared Bat 

Black Rat 

Raccoon 

Eastern Spotted Skunk 



MAMMALS 

vyh I teta i 1 deer 
Eastern Gray Squirrel 
Southern Flying Squirre 
Eastern Harvest Mouse 
Rice Rat 

Florida Water Rat 
Marsh Rabbit 
Eastern Wood Rat 
Southern Golden Mouse 
Red Fox 



Source: Modified from the Natura 
Florida, 1975. 



1 Resources Study for Alachua County, 



59 



APPENDIX 2 - Continued 



ENDANGERED SPECIES CONTAINED IN FLORIDA CODE- 



State Listed Only 

Pine Barrens Tree Frog 
East Coast Salt Marsh Snake 
Short-Tailed Snake 
Wood Stork 
Snowy Plover 



Also Federally Listed 

Hawksbill Turtle 
Ridley Turtle 
Ivory-billed Woodpecker 
Red-cockaded V/oodpecker 
American Perequine Falcon 
Bachman ' s Warbl er 
Kirtlan' s Warbler 
Panther 



THREATENED SPECIES CONTAINED IN FLORIDA CODE-^ 



State Listed Only 

Florida Gopher Frog 

Suwannee Bass 

Suwannee Turtle 

Loggerhead Turtle 

Gopher Turtle 

Blue- Tailed Mole Skink 

Sand Skink 

Rosy Rat Snake 

Indigo Snake 

Brown Snake 

Ribbon Snake 

Magnificant Frigate Bird 

Osprey 

Southeastern Kestrel 

Oyster Catcher 

Roseate Tern 

Scrub Jay 

Louisiana Seaside Sparrow 

Roseate Spoonbi 1 1 

Florida Sandhill Crane 

Short-Ta i 1 ed Hawk 

Shermans Fox Squirrel 



Also Federally Listed 

Okaloosa Darter 

Shortnose Sturgeon 

Al ] igator 

Bald Eagle 

Brown Pel ican 

Actic Perequine Falcon 

Manatee 



•'•Lists of threatened and endangered species whose range extends into 
north-central Florida was prepared with the assistance of Mr. Steve 
Nesbitt and Mr. Jim Brady, Wildlife Biologists with the Florida Game 
and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Wildlife Research Station, Gainesville, 
Florida, November \k, 1977- 



160 



APPEND I X 3 
COMPILATION OF TECHNICAL DATA 



The information appearing in tablesof the Natural Resources Study and 
Land Use Plan for north central Florida are similar in nature. Both 
reports define land uses in forms suitable to the specific needs and 
Intent of each individual study. Although all information presented 
was compiled from authoritative sources discrepancies may be observed 
between these documents and even individual tables. 

In preparing these documents, the need for a diversity of information 
mandated the use of a number of technical reference documents. Although 
efforts were made to achieve consistency, no major attempt was made to 
reconcile all sources of data. Therefore, minor inconsistencies between 
figures presented in both documents are apparent. These inconsistencies 
are attributed to both variations In land use definition as well as data 
sources . 

Definitions in land use categories can be misleading in terms of the 
data presented unless each text Is thoroughly read. For example, forestry 
figures in the National Resources Study pertain to total forested lands, 
while similar figures given in the Land Use Plan pertain specifically to 
commercial forestry lands. This is also Illustrated by forest figures 
given for each county. In the instance of Alachua County, the Natural 
Resources Study reports total forest lands as 311,^00 acres, and similarly 
the Land Use Plan records a total of 258,000 acres of commercial forest 
lands. 

A second problem, that associated with different data sources, must 
remain unresolved pending further land use analyses as anticipated in 
the preparation of the Regional Comprehensive Plan. One example of this 
type problem can readily be illustrated by citing total land area figures 
for Alachua County from three different sources. These include: 

Forest Statistics for Northeast Florida (1970) - 538,200 acres 

197^ Census of Agriculture - 586,048 acres 

Florida Statistical Abstract (1976) - 617, ^5^ acres. 

Despite inconsistencies of this nature the reader should note that the 
d I screpencles between reports and individual tables represent an average 
error of less than five percent and typically less than one percent. 
Therefore, the broad regional land use analyses contained in both docu- 
ments are unaffected by this insignificant degree of difference. 



161 



B I BL I OGRAPHY 



1. Natural Resources Study for Alachua County, Florida, North Central 

Florida Regional Planning Council, Ga i nesv i 1 le, Flori da , 1975- 

2. Florida's Environmentally Endangered Lands Plan, Department of Natural 

Resources, Division of Recreation and Parks, Tallahassee, Florida, 
February, 1975- 

3. CI imatolog ica 1 Data, Annual Summary, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National 

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Data Service, 
Ashville, N.C., 1976. 

h. Bradley, James T. , Climate of the States, Eastern States Volume 1, 
U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, June, 1972. 

5. Myhra, David, "Let's Put An End To Energy Waste In Housing," Planning, 

Volume 40, Number 7, August, 197^. 

6. Hess, Nancy R. , "House Design and Energy Conservation," Economic 

Leaflets, University of Florida Bureau of Business and Economic 
Research, Volume 3^, Number 2, February, 1975. 

7- Timber for Florida, Florida's Forest Resource and Products, Florida 

Division of Forestry, Volumes One and Two, Tallahassee, Florida, 1974. 

8. Outdoor Recreation in Florida. Florida Department of Natural Resources, 

Division of Recreation and Parks, Tallahassee, Florida, May, 1976. 

9. Florida Regional Coastal Zone Environmental Quality Assessment, 

Region 3» North Central Florida, North Central Florida Regional 
Planning Council, Gainesville, Florida, September, 1976. 

10. Northeast Gulf River Basins Cooperative Survey, Volume 1, U.S. Dept. 

of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Economic Research 
Service and Forest Service, June, 1977. 

11. Promoting Environmental Quality Through Urban Planning and Control, 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and 
Development, Environmental Studies Division, Washington, D.C., 
June, 1973. 

12. Florida Lakes, Part 111, Gazetteer, Division of Water Resources, 

Florida Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, Florida, 1969- 

13- Florida State Comprehensive Plan Agricultural Element (proposed), 

Florida Dept. of Administration, Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer 
Services, Tallahassee, Florida, April, 1976. 



163 



14. Agricultural Growth In An Urban Age, University of Florida, 

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainesville, Florida, 
February, 1975- 

15. Suwannee River Basin 303(e) Water Quality Management Plan, Florida 

Department of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, Florida, 
August, 1975. 

16. Auci 1 la-Ochlockonee-St. Mark's River Basin 303(e) Water Quality Management 

Plan, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, 
Florida, August, 1975- 

17. St. Johns River Basin 303(e) Water Quality Management Plan, 

Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, 
Florida, August, 1975- 

18. Managing the Environment, Office of Research and Development, 

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., November, 1973- 

19. 197^ Census of Agriculture, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of Census, 

Volume 1, Part 9, Florida State and County Data, June, 1977- 

20. Significant Natural Areas In Planning District Three, North Central 

Florida Regional Planning Council, Gainesville, Florida, 1977- 

21. Springs of Florida, Florida Geological Survey, Geological Bulletin 

No. 31, Tallahassee, Florida, 197^ 

22. The Geomorphology of the Florida Peninsula, Florida Bureau of Geology, 

Geological Bulletin No. 51, Tallahassee, Florida, 1970. 

23. Florida General Soils Atlas for Planning Districts 3 and k. 

Division of State Planning, Bureau of Comprehensive Planning, 
Tallahassee, Florida, July, 1974. 

24. Forest Statistics for Northeast Florida, 1970, U.S. Dept. of 

Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment 
Station, Ashville, North Carolina. 

25. Water Resources Information Needs for the Suwannee River Water 

Management District, Suwannee River Water Management District, 
Information Circular No. 1, White Springs, Florida, 1975. 

26. Housing, 1973, North Central Florida Regional Planning Council, 

Gainesville, Florida, July, 1973- 

27- Forested Wetlands of Florida - Their Management and Use, University 
of Florida, Center for Wetlands, Gainesville, Florida, February, 
1976, (draft). 

28. Agricultural Element - Florida State Comprehensive Plan, Florida Dep- 
artment of Administration, Division of State Planning, April, 
1976. 



64 



29. Outdoor Recreation in Florida, Florida Department of Natural Resources, 

Division of Recreation and Parks, Tallahassee, Florida, May, 1976. 

30. Land Development Element (Proposed) - Florida State Compreinens i ve Plan, 

Florida Department of Administration, Division of State Planning, 
April, 1976. 

31. Personal communication, Richard Schroeder, Bradford County Forester, 

November 17, 1977- 

32. Areas of Environmental Concern in Planning District Three, North 

Central Florida Regional Planning Council, Gainesville, Florida, 
April, 197^. 

33- A Planners Handbook on Energy, Florida Department of Administration, 
State Energy Office, Tallahassee, Florida, November, 1975- 



165 



NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA REGIONAL PLANNING COUNCIL 



STAFF 
Charles F. Justice, Executive Director 
Charles Harwood, Director of Regional Planning 
Roy Brewer, Planner Ml 
Alan Csontos, Environmental Planner 
Jeanne Martel , Planner I 
David Ti 1 11 s, Planner I 



Primary Responsibility